Wednesday 31 July 2019


            He attended a certain yeshiva, later received ordination into the rabbinate, and served as a rabbi in London.  He was the author of In kamf kegen shtrom, 25 yohr idishen leben in london (Fighting against the current, twenty-five years of Jewish life in London) (London, 1946), 252 pp.
Berl Cohen


JULIAN SHVARTS (May 15, 1910-October 19, 1977)
            The brother of Itsik Shvarts (Y. Kara) and Simkhe Shvarts, he was born in Podeloy (Podu Iloaiei), Romania.  His Jewish first name was Sholem.  He received a traditional Jewish education.  In Jassy (Iași) he completed a four-level high school.  From 1924 he was active in Yiddish theater, first in Iași and later in Bucharest, directed drama circles, performed himself, and translated plays into Yiddish and Romanian.  He wrote one-act plays, while at the same time collecting Jewish folklore and folk art (such a tombstones).  In 1926 he began publishing biographies and translation into Romanian for Romanian Jewish newspapers, in 1933 in Tshernovitser bleter (Czernowitz pages) and from 1945 in almost all Yiddish newspapers in Romania; also in Folks-shtime (Voice of the people) in Warsaw; Naye prese (New press) in Paris; and Yidishe shprakh (Yiddish language), Kultur un lebn (Culture and life), Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture), and Morgn frayhayt (Morning freedom) in New York; among others.  In book form: 15 yidishe folklorizirte lider (Fifteen Yiddish folkloric poems) (Bucharest: IKUF, 1946), 16 pp.; Der farkishefter shrayber (The enchanted writer), a one-act play (Bucharest: Far unzere dramkrayzn, 1947), 20 pp.; Literarishe dermonungen (Literary reminiscences) (Bucharest: Kriteryon, 1975), 213 pp.; Portretn un eseyen (Portraits and essays) (Bucharest, 1979), 264 pp.  He died in Bucharest.

Sources: Sholem Shtern, in Yidishe kultur (New York) 7 (1976); D. Matis, in Forverts (New York) (August 29, 1976); A. Forsher, in Forverts (September 12, 1976); Elye (Elias) Shulman, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (October 26, 1976); Y. Kara, Yunge yorn un…veyniker yunge, album-bleter (Years of youth and…younger years, pages from an album) (Bucharest, 1980), pp. 194-97.
Ruvn Goldberg


            He was born in Zlotshev (Zolochiv), Galicia.  He authored a volume of poetry in Hebrew with a parallel text in Yiddish entitled Shire emunim (Poems of fidelity) (Lemberg, 1881), 100 pp.  There is reflected in these poems the poignant struggle between the Galician followers of the Jewish Enlightenment and the Orthodox.  Zalmen Reyzen noted that “this book is of considerable cultural historical interest in the fact that the author was a zealous Hassid, perhaps the first Hassid who wrote Yiddish poetry.”  In the second part, he describes the sad condition of Jewish merchants.

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4.
Berl Cohen


KHAYIM SHVARTS (CHAIM SCHWARTZ) (December 25, 1903-1994)
            He was a poet, born in Berezin (Byerazino), Byelorussia.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshiva.  He was an upholsterer by profession.  In 1922 he settled in St. Louis, Missouri, later in New York, and in 1937 in Los Angeles.  For several years he worked as a teacher in the “Ordn” (International Workers’ Order) schools.  He was active in leftist literary circles.  He debuted in print with a poem in Yung kuznye (Young furrier) in New York (1925).  He went on to published poems in: Signal (Signal), Hamer (Hammer), Morgn frayhayt (Morning freedom), Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture), and Zamlungen (Collections)—in New York.  His work also appeared in: Revolutsyonerer deklamator zamlung fun lider, poemes, dertseylungen, eynakters, tsum farleyenen, shipln un zingen bay arbeter-farveylung (Revolutionary declamation, collection of songs, poems, stories, [and] one-act plays to read aloud, enact, and sing for workers’ entertainment) (New York, 1933); and Nakhmen Mayzil’s Amerike in yidishn vort (America in the Yiddish word) (New York, 1955).  His poetry books include: Ershte blitn (First blossoms) (St. Louis: Independent Jewish Labor Club, 1928), 111 pp.; Der groyser gerangl (The great struggle) (Los Angeles, 1943), 122 pp.; Unzer dor (Our generation) (Los Angeles, 1950), 168 pp.; In shayn fun baginen (In the glow of dawn) (New York: IKUF, 68), 252 pp.; Likhtike shtign (Illuminated staircase) (Los Angeles, 1975), 134 pp.

Sources: Aleksander Pomerants, in Proletpen (Kiev) (1935), p. 244; Zishe Vaynper, in Yidisher kultur (New York) 4 (1951); Nosn Fodemberg, Shafer un boyer, eseyen vegn shrayber un bikher (Creators and builders, essays on writers and books) (New York: IKUF, 1967), pp. 140-47; Y. Kalman, in Morgn frayhayt (New York) (April 20, 1969); Yeshurin archive, YIVO (New York).
Beyle Gottesman


HERSH SHVARTS (b. April 8, 1906)
            The author of stories, he was born in Sekuran (Secureni), Bessarabia.  He attended religious elementary schools and later a high school.  From 1926 he was living in Brazil.  He began writing with a sketch in Brazilyaner idishe prese (Brazilian Jewish press) in 1926.  He contributed stories to: Di prese (The press) and Der shpigl (The mirror) in Buenos Aires; Folkstsaytung (People’s newspaper) and Unzer baytrog (Our contribution) in Rio de Janeiro; Der nayer moment (The new moment) in São Paolo; Tsukunft (Future) and Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter) in New York; and Heymish (Familiar) in Tel Aviv; among other serials.  In book form: Der onheyb (The beginnings) (Rio de Janeiro: Monte Scopus, 1954), 217 pp.; Heym grin-goldene, dertseylungen (Home green-golden, stories) (Rio de Janeiro, 1960), 272 pp.  His work also appeared in Shmuel Rozhanski’s anthology Brazilyanish (Brazilian) (Buenos Aires, 1973).  Shvarts depicts Jewish life in the old country as well as in Brazil.

Sources: Der Lebediker (Khayim Gutman), in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (July 17, 1955); Froym Oyerbakh, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (December 18, 1960); Pinkes (New York, 1965), pp. 275-76; Yitskhok-Zelik Rayzman, Yidishe sheferishkayt in lender fun portugalishn loshn, portugal un brazil (Jewish creativity in lands of the Portuguese language, Portugal and Brazil) (Tsfat: Muzeon leomanut hadefus, 1975), pp. 297-302.
Berl Cohen


AVROM-SHMUEL SHVARTS (June 1, 1876-June 16, 1957)
            He was a Hebrew poet, born in Zezmer (Žiežmariai), Lithuania, the brother of Yisroel-Yankev Shvarts (Y. Y. Schwartz).  He received both a Jewish and a general education.  In 1900 he emigrated to the United States.  He worked as a Hebrew teacher in New York and there completed his medical degree.  He initially wrote in Yiddish.  In 1900 he debuted in print with a poem in Yud (Jew) in Cracow.  He published poetry in: Tsukunft (Future), Minikes yontef bleter (Minike’s holiday sheets), and elsewhere.  His work also appeared in Morris Basin’s 500 yor yidishe poezye (500 years of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1922).  He later stopped writing in Yiddish.  He died in New York.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4 (under the biography for Y. Y. Shvarts); Getzel Kressel, Leksikon hasifrut haivrit (Handbook of Hebrew literature), vol. 2 (Meravya, 1967); Zalmen Shazar, Opshatsungen un eseyen (Treatments and essays) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1976), pp. 110-21.
Ruvn Goldberg


AVROM SHVARTS (June 20, 1902-June 15, 1964)
            He was a journalist, born in Petrile (Petrila), Transylvania.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshiva, and later a Klausenburg Tarbut high school.  In 1924 he moved to Uruguay.  He worked as a shoemaker, later becoming a professional journalist.  Over the years 1933-1963, he served as editor of the daily Folksblat (People’s newspaper) in Montevideo, and a short time later he wrote for Haynt (Today) in Montevideo.  He died in Montevideo.

Source: Yitskhok Vaynshenker, Boyers un mitboyers fun yidishn yishev in urugvay (Founders and builders of the Jewish community in Uruguay) (Montevideo: Zrie, 1957).
S. Starozhevski


            He was born in Mikulnice (Mykulyntsi), Galicia.  He was the author of the book: Fun neshomes in thom, roman (Souls at the precipice, a novel) (Tarnopol, 1935), 289 pp.
Berl Cohen


YANKEV SHUDRIKH (November 20, 1906-June 1943)

            He was a poet, born in the village of Uhniv (Hivniv), Galicia (now, in Lviv district, Ukraine). He was a furrier by trade, and from his youth joined in the revolutionary movement. He began writing poetry in his youth, mostly on themes of struggle. In June 1932 he took part in Lviv (Lemberg) in a conference of representatives from Ukrainian, Polish, and Jewish intellectuals in the fields of literature, science, music, and painting, dedicated to the idea of convening an international anti-militaristic congress. He was a cofounder in 1932 of AYAP—“Algemeyne yidishe arbeter-partey” (General Jewish labor party), which took Communist positions. He wrote for the semi-legal AYAP organ, Der veg (The way), and for Tsu shtern (To the star), and he took a leading place in his hometown’s “Jewish people’s reading room named for Y. L. Perets.” He was arrested several times for Communist activities. He also contributed to: Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) in Warsaw, Unzer zibn teg (Our seven days) (Warsaw, 1936), Tsushteyer (Contribution) in Lviv, Sovetishe literatur (Soviet literature) in Kiev, and other leftist journals. He composed lyrical-social poetry. People would sing his poems at demonstrations, and they rang out at illegal literary evenings.

            In September 1939 when western Ukraine united with the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, his poems were published in Lviv, Kiev, and Minsk. With the start of WWII, he found himself confined in the Lviv ghetto. He organized a resistance group there and linked up with the partisans. How he died is the subject of differing versions. According to one such, he led a group of Jews while fleeing from the ghetto to join the partisans; another version has it that it was due to a provocation caused by a car driver, he was taken to the Gestapo and shot there. Yet another story was told by his Ukrainian friend, Yaroslav Galan (Halan, 1902-1949). In 1944 Galan returned to Lviv and began tracking down traces of the Jewish poet. In the newspaper Radyan'ska Ukraina (Soviet Ukraine), he wrote: “One morning, Shudrikh happened to meet face-to-face with a group of Gestapo men who were actually looking for him. He greeted them with a volley of shots from his pistol. Shudrikh died with glory.”

            Some of his poems were sung at demonstrations. His work appeared as well in: Lebn un kamf (Life and struggle) (Minsk: Byelorussian State Publishers, 1936); Yitskhok Paner and Leyzer Frenkel, Naye yidishe dikhtung (Modern Yiddish poetry) (Iași: Jewish cultural circle in Romania, 1947); Binem Heler, Dos lid iz geblibn, lider fun yidishe dikhter in poyln, umgekumene beys der hitlerisher okupatsye, antologye (The poem remains, poems by Jewish poets in Poland, murdered during the Hitler occupation, anthology) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1951); Hubert Witt, Der Fiedler vom Getto: Jiddische Dichtung aus Polen (The fiddler of the ghetto, Yiddish poetry from Poland) (Leipzig: Reclam, 1966); Witt, Meine jüdischen Augen jiddische Dichtung aus Polen (My Jewish eyes, Yiddish poetry from Poland) (Leipzig: Reclam, 1969). In book form: Di erd rirt, lider (The earth moves, poetry) (Warsaw: Literarishe bleter, 1937), 62 pp., later edition (Buenos Aires: Shpritser, 1953), 87 pp.; Oyfshtayg (Ascent), poetry (Kiev-Lvov: State Publishers, 1941), 96 pp.

Sources: Nokhum Bomze, in Yidishe kultur (New York) (April 1946); B. Mark, Umgekumene shrayber fun di getos un lagern (Murders writers from the ghettos and camps) (Warsaw, 1954), p. 206; Entsiklopediya shel galiyut (Encyclopedia of the Diaspora), vol. 7 (Jerusalem-Tel Aviv, 1956), p. 764; Y. Shulmayster, in Sovetish heymland (Moscow) 7 (1977); Sh. Shtern, in Morgn frayhayt (New York) (August 21, 1977); Forverts (New York) (January 21, 1979); Yeshurin archive, YIVO (New York).

Ruvn Goldberg

[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 378.]

Tuesday 30 July 2019


            He was born in Belerodke, Ukraine.  He emigrated to the United States.  He debuted in print in Chicago’s Idisher kuryer (Jewish courier) with a poem (November 1938).  He published there the novels: Khupe afn beys-oylem (Wedding canopy in a cemetery) and Kadesh der vasertreger (Kadesh the water carrier).  He also wrote for Amerikaner (American) and for N. Kravits’s Der idisher veg (The Jewish way) in Chicago.  In book form: Tsar un hofenung (Sorrow and hope) (Chicago, 1948), 208 pp.; Der getlekher ben-tsien, a noṿele fun idishen lebn in rusland in akhtsentn yorhunder (The divine son of Zion, a tale of Jewish life in Russia in the eighteenth century) (Chicago, n.d.), 246 pp.
Berl Cohen


TSVI SHUBER (September 19, 1905-July 14, 1973)
            The author of stories, he was born Hirshl Tokhterman in Pilev (Puławy), Poland.  He lived for many years in Warsaw.  In 1930 he came to Toronto.  He worked as a milkman.  From 1925 he was writing lyrical poetry for: Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) and Folkstsaytung (People’s newspaper).  From 1930 he published stories and articles in: Vokhnblat (Weekly newspaper) and Idisher zhurnal (Jewish journal) in Toronto.  In book form: Dos goldene kalb (The golden calf), a novel (Tel Aviv, 1970), 48 pp., about life in prewar and Communist Poland; Di farkishefte velt fun amol (The enchanting world of the past) (Buenos Aires, 1973), 238 pp., which appeared serially in Idishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper) in Buenos Aires earlier.  He died in Toronto.

Source: Information from Shloyme Mitsmakher, Toronto.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


KHAYIM-ARN SHUBIN (May 3, 1888?-June 29, 1956)
            He was born in Nevel, Russian empire, the son of Hirsh Shubin.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshiva, and he graduated from a Russian high school in Vitebsk.  In 1912 he settled in Toronto, where he was administrator of a Jewish school and later, until 1934, of a private middle school.  From 1914 he was publishing articles on Jewish community topics, Jewish education, and feature pieces in Idisher zhurnal (Jewish journal in Toronto.  He also contributed to: Dos folk (The people), Der veg (The way), and Keneder odler (Canadian eagle), among other serials.  In book form: Di toyznt gebotn, filozofishe sententsn loyt der tsavoe fun lord teylor (The 1,000 commandments, philosophical sentences according to the will of Lord Taylor) (Toronto, 1939), 170 pp.  He died in Montreal.

Sources: Benypmen-Gutel Zak, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (June 30, 1956); archive of the Jewish Public Library in Montreal.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


HIRSH SHUBIN (b. 1868)
            He was born in Polotsk, Russian empire, the son of a merchant and bookseller.  At age twenty-one, he wrote a storybook, Di shtifmuter, oder roze di krasovke, an interesante roman (The stepmother, or Rosa the beauty, an interesting novel [about what transpired in Polotsk]) (Vilna: Rozenkrants and Shriftzetser, 1890), 32 pp., later edition (1927).  He was to have authored several further storybooks, but his father forbade him from doing so.  Until 1914 he was a bookseller, and from 1915 he was a rabbi’s assistant in the city of Trok (Trakai).

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4.
Berl Cohen


AVROM-DOVID (DAVID) SHUB (September 13, 1887-May 27, 1973)
            He was born in Potov, Vilna district.  He attended a local religious elementary school, graduated in 1901 from a district Russian school in Vileyke (Naujoji Vilnia), and later studied as an external student in Vilna.  There he became involved with the revolutionary youth organization Shkola Borby (Fight school).  In 1903 he came to the United States, spent the first two years in Philadelphia, and later lived in New York.  He performed various forms of physical labor.  He became acquainted with radical Jewish intellectuals and audited a series of lectures by Dr. Chaim Zhitlovsky on “Materyalizm un sintetisher monism” (Materialism and synthetic monism).  He became a member of the Russian Social-Democratic Society.  In mid-1905 he returned to Russia.  On the way, he stopped off for a short time in Geneva, where he got to know Lenin, Plekhanov, Lev Deutsch, and other revolutionary leaders.  He took part in the Revolution of 1905.  In 1906 he surrendered to a soldier and was arrested and deported to Irkutsk, Siberia.  In late 1907 he fled to London, and in 1908 he permanently settled in America.
            His first articles were published in 1906 in a Menshevik newspaper in St. Petersburg.  He debuted in print in Yiddish in the Bundist Folks-tsaytung (People’s newspaper) in Vilna (1906).  In New York in 1908, he became a contributor to the weekly newspaper Tsayt-gayst (Spirit of the times), and at the end of the same year he was a contributor and later assistant editor of Der arbeter (The worker), edited by Dovid Pinski and Yoysef Shlosberg.  Over the years 1911-1918, he was assistant editor and later editor of Naye post (New mail).  At that time, he was also writing articles for Der fraynd (The friend) in New York and in Russian for Novy Mir (New world) and Narodnaia gazeta (People’s gazette), both also in New York, and he co-edited (1919-1920) the English-language anti-Bolshevik weekly Struggling Russia.  He placed articles (1921-1922) in Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) under the pen name A. D. Natanson, in Tog (Day) under the pen name P. A. Stavski, in Veker (Alarm) under the pseudonym A. Rozental (editor, 1923-1927), and in Gerekhtigkeyt (Justice).  In 1924 he was also a contributor to Forverts (Forward).  He wrote on labor issues, matters involving trade unions, and international social democracy for which he had a distinctive sympathy.  His principal interest was in Russia, Bolshevism, and Russian culture.  In innumerable articles he vigorously combatted Bolshevism, just as he led a fight against an effort by Jewish Communists in America to encroach upon Jewish labor organizations and trade unions.  He wrote a long series of articles on the Russian Revolution and socialist thinkers.  In dealing with socialist issues, he also touched upon Jewish social questions and evinced a special interest in the Bund; in writing about Marx, Lassalle, Bernstein, and others, he always shed light on their approach to Jewish issues.  Shub’s writing career lasted about sixty-seven years, as he contributed his share to the development of Yiddish journalism in America.  He died in Miami, Florida.
            He edited Der idisher velt-almanakh (The Jewish world almanac) (New York, 1926, 1927).  He translated into English with Joseph Shaplen: Socialism, Fascism, Communism (New York: American League for Democratic Socialism, 1934), 239 pp.; and Karl Kautsky, Social Democracy versus Communism (Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, 1946), 142 pp.  He authored: Lenin: A Biography (New York: Doubleday, 1948), 438 pp., second abridged edition (New York, 1952), third edition for Europe (London, 1966).  This last work was translated into many languages and was used as a textbook in American universities.  Other work by him include: Lenin, der mentsh, der revolutsyoner un diḳtaṭor, a politishe byografye fun dem komunizm (Lenin, the man, the revolutionary, and dictator, a political biography of Communism) (New York: Veker, 1928), 234 pp.; Heldn un martirer, di geshikhte fun di amolike groyse rusishe revolutsyonern un fun zeyer heroishn kamf far frayhayt (Heroes and martyrs, the history of the great Russian revolutionaries of the past and of their heroic struggle for freedom) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzshoza, 1939), 580 pp., in Hebrew translation by M. Benayahu as Haloḥamim leḥerut (The fighters for freedom) (Tel Aviv: M. Nyuman, 1945/1946), 216 pp.; Fashizm un komunizm, vi azoy moskve hot geholfn brengen fashizm un natsizm af der velt (Fascism and Communism, how Moscow helped bring fascism and Nazism to the world) (New York: Veker, 1939), 48 pp.; Fun di amolike yorn, bletlekh zikhroynes (From years past, pages of memoirs) (New York, 1967), 2 vols., awarded a prize from the Khanin Foundation in 1970; Sotsyale denker un kemfer (Social thinkers and fighters) (Mexico City: Shloyme Mendelson Fund, 1968), 2 vols.

Sources: Mendl Osherovitsh, in Forverts (New York) (September 14, 1957); Grigori Aronson, in Fraye arbeter shtime (New York) (January 1, 1968); Yisroel Emyot, in Forverts (October 27, 1968); Elye (Elias) Shulman, in Tsukunft (New York) (April 1969); Lazar Fogelman, in Forverts (August 3, 1969); Ezriel Naks, in Forverts (September 13, 1970); Vladimir Grosman, Velt-yidntum in der velt-politik (World Jewry in world politics) (Paris, 1973), pp. 55-66; M. Epshteyn, in Unzer tsayt (New York) (July-August 1973).
Elye (Elias) Shulman


SHMUEL SAGIV (August 21, 1892-November 21, 1966)
            He was born in Kiev, descended from a religious family.  He graduated from the Sorbonne in Paris.  From his youth he was active in the Zionist and later revolutionary movement.  Over the years 1922-1933, he lived in Poland, Germany, and France.  In 1934 he made aliya to the land of Israel.  His journalistic work began in 1911 for Hatsfira (The siren).  He wrote on literature, art, and current events in Hebrew, Russian, German, French, and English serial publications, as well as in Yiddish for: Haynt (Today), Moment (Moment), and Unzer leben (Our life) in Warsaw; Parizer haynt (Paris today), Lemberger togblat (Lemberg daily newspaper), and Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal, among others.  His original surname was: Homelski.  He died in Tel Aviv.

Source: Getzel Kressel, Leksikon hasifrut haivrit (Handbook of Hebrew literature), vol. 2 (Merḥavya, 1967).

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 517-18.


SORE SHABES (SARA SHABATH) (b. March 6, 1913)
            She was born in Nesvizh (Nesvyžius), Byelorussia.  She graduated from a Hebrew high school.  In 1934 she made aliya to the land of Israel.  She lived in Kibbutz Ramat Yonatan and from 1940 in Kibbutz Bet-Alfa.  From 1979 she published poems in Yisroel-shtime (Voice of Israel) in Tel Aviv and Melburner bleter (Melbourne pages).  In book form: Fun heym tsu heym, lider (From home to home, poetry) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1981), 94 pp.; Tsvishn zun un shotn (Between sun and shadow) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1983), 110 pp.; Vi a feder in vint, lider (Like a feather in the wind, poetry) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1985), 112 pp.

Source: Mordekhai alamish, in Yisroel-shtime (Tel Aviv) (November 14, 1979).
Ruvn Goldberg

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 517, 554.


AVROM SHEVEKH (ABRAHAM SZEWACH) (August 15, 1904-April 20, 1969)
            He was a poet, born in Bialystok.  He attended “Yafes shule” (Yafe’s school) in Bialystok.  In 1930 he emigrated to Argentina, where he took up business.  In early 1969 he made aliya to Israel.  He died en route and was buried in Buenos Aires.  He began writing poetry in Yiddish while quite young, and later used Esperanto.  He published in: Byalistoker shtime (Voice of Bialystok); and Byalistoker vegn (Bialystok ways), Di prese (The press), and Idishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper), among other serials, in Buenos Aires.  His work appeared as well in: V. Bresler, Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944); Zamlbukh (Collection) of the H. D. Nomberg Writers’ Association in Argentina (Buenos Aires, 1962); Shmuel Rozhanski, ed., Ven a folk dervakht, medines yisroel, 1948-1968, antologye (When a people awakens, the state of Israel, 1948-1968, anthology) (Buenos Aires, 1968); and Rozhanski, ed., Khurbn, antologye 109 poetn, dertseylers un memuaristn (Holocaust, anthology of 109 poets, short story writers, and memoirists) (Buenos Aires, 1970).  In book form: Tsayt-lider (Topical poetry) (Buenos Aires, 1944), 32 pp.; Ten lider far gezang un pyano (Ten poems for singing and piano), music by Henekh Kon (Buenos Aires: Association of Fellow Bialystok Natives in Argentina, 1952), 52 pp.

Sources: Sh. Osovitski, in Lebns-fragn (Tel Aviv) (September-October 1969); Osovitski, in Unzer shrift (Haifa) 5-6 (1970-1971), pp.189-90.
Ruvn Goldberg


            He was born in Bialystok, descendent of a well-to-do family.  Until age seventeen, he studied Talmud, Tanakh, Hebrew and with home tutors Russian and secular subject matter.  He graduated from a high school.  He studied in Ghent, Kharkov, and Brussels where he received his doctoral degree in economics.  Over the years 1914-1921, he lived in Russia, worked in the Kharkov credit cooperative, and was a member of the Kharkov Jewish community council.  He returned to Poland in 1921.  He worked there for the Joint Distribution Committee and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society.  He served as a member of the central committee (1924-1939) of Hitadut (Union).  In 1940 he settled in New York where he died.
            From 1922 he served as a member of the editorial board of Kooperative bavegung (Cooperative movement), in which he wrote on economic matters.  He also contributed to: Haynt (Today) (1924-1939), Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) (1941-1952), and Tog-morgn-zhurnal (Day-morning journal) (1952-1964).  He acquired a name for himself for his travel descriptions of Jewish communities around the world, which he published in many newspapers—his articles were syndicated in a number of countries—and later in books.  He also wrote in Polish.
            His works include: Entshtehung, entviklung un grund-printsipen fun der kredit-kooperatsye (Creation, development, and basic principles of the credit cooperative) (Warsaw, 1927), 32 pp.; Lender un shtet, rayze ayndrukn, mit bilder (Countries and cities, travel impressions, with images) (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1930), 324 pp.; Ratnfarband 1936, rayze ayndrukn (Soviet Union 1936, travel impressions) (Warsaw: Jewish Universal Library, 1937), 143 pp.; Ekzotishe rayzes (Exotic travels) (Warsaw: Jewish Universal Library, 1938), 142 pp.; Bleter fun a geto-tog-bukh (Pages from a ghetto diary) (New York: Kh. H. Glants, 1943). 144 pp.; Poyln—1946, ayndrukn fun a rayze (Poland, 1946, impressions from a trip) (Buenos Aires: Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1947), 191 pp.; A velt vos iz farbay, kapitlekh zikhroynes (A world gone by, chapters of memoirs) (Buenos Aires: Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1949), 368 pp.; Mayn rayze arum der velt (My voyage around the world) (Buenos Aires: Unzer bukh, 1951), 274 pp.; Durkh umbakante lender (Through unknown countries) (Rio de Janeiro: Monte Scopus, 1954), 397 pp.; Masoes r’ khayim (The travels of R. Khayim) (Rio, 1957), 421 pp.; Mit yidn, tsvishn indyaner, neger un araber, a nesie iber dray kontinentn (With Jews, among Indians, Negroes, and Arabs, a voyage over three continents) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1960), 373 pp.; Fun moskve biz eyver-hayardn (From Moscow to Transjordan) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1961), 330 pp.; Tsvishn yidn in vayte lender (Among Jews in distant countries) (Tel Aviv: Hamenorah, 1964), 470 pp.  Translations of his work into Hebrew: Bedarkhe tevel (On the paths of the world) (Tel Aviv: Tverski, 1954), 236 pp.; Mehakremlin ad ha-piramidot (From the Kremlin to the pyramids) (Jerusalem: Nyuman, 1959), 232 pp.  Some of his books appeared as well in English, Polish, French, and Spanish translations.
            “Dr. Shoshkes was the last of the great Jewish wanderers,” wrote Shmuel-Leyb Shnayderman, “[a man] who, in their spirit, was fired by an unquenchable thirst to reach forgotten, displaced Jewish communities in the most distant, secluded corners of our planet.  His travel writings are a mixture of flashy observations, colorful descriptions, ideas about Jewish fate, and personal reminiscences of the past near and far.”

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4; Der Lebediker (Khayim Gutman), in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 23, 1955); Shloyme Bikl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (January 19, 1958); A. Mukdoni, in Tsukunft (New York) (May-June 1958); Shmuel-Leyb Shnayderman, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (April 10, 1962; May 13, 1964); Ben-Tsien Goldberg, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (December 12, 1964); Y. Yeshurin, D”r khayim shoshkes, biblyografye (Dr. Khayim Shoshkes, bibliography) (Tel Aviv, 1964); Avrom Zak, In kinigraykh fun yidishn vort, eseyen un dermonungen (In the kingdom of the Yiddish word, essays and remembrances) (Buenos Aires: YIVO, 1966).
Berl Cohen


AVROM-MIKHL SHARKANSKI (September 8, 1869-June 27, 1907)[1]
            He was a poet and playwright, born in Lubave (Liubavas), Suwałki district.  After his father’s death, the family moved to Kalvarye (Kalvarija), near Suwałki.  He attended religious elementary schools and privately studied Russian and German.  He would also have studied at a Kovno yeshiva.  In 1890 he married a former streetwalker who deserted him after arriving in Chicago in 1891.  He moved to New York and there became involved in a Yiddish literary circle.  He lived a Bohemian life, becoming entangled with a second tragic love which reduced him to insanity, and in 1907 he was confined to a house for the mentally ill.  He died in New York.
            He began writing poetry at age sixteen.  He debuted in print with a poem in Idisher kuryer (Jewish courier) in Chicago (February 6, 1891), and soon he began publishing poetry, humorous sketches, and articles in various American Yiddish serials: Arbayter-tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper); Philadelphia’s Di yudishe prese (The Jewish press) (1892-1894), Der folks vekhter (The people’s watchman) (1893), Der folks zhurnal (The people’s journal) (1894), Der literarisher shtrahl (The literary beam [of light]) (1899-1905); New York’s Der amerikaner folks calendar (The American people’s calendar) (1900), Dos tsvantsigste yorhundert (The twentieth century) (1900), Di idishe bihne (The Yiddish stage), and Minikes yohr-bukh (Minike’s yearbook), among others.  One of his poems was published by Der esreg (The citron) in Warsaw.  Together with Philip Krantz, in 1893 he brought out Der shtodt antseyger, monatlikher zhurnal fir literatur, kunst, visenshaft un komerts (The city advertiser, a monthly journal for literature, art, science, and commerce) (New York)—two issues appeared; with Morris Rozenfeld, in 1894 a satirical weekly entitled Der ashmeday (Asmodeus), and in 1900 Der pinkes (The record); and on his own in 1897 the monthly Di naye velt (The new world).  His poetry appeared in: Morris Basin, 500 yor yidishe poezye (500 years of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1922); Yoyel Entin, Yidishe poetn, hantbukh fun yidisher dikhtung (Yiddish poets, a handbook of Yiddish poetry), part 2 (New York: Jewish National Labor Alliance and Labor Zionist Party, 1927); Nakhmen Mayzil, Amerike in yidishn vort (America in the Yiddish word) (New York, 1955); and Joseph and Eleanor Mlotek, Perl fun yidisher poezye (Pearls of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1974).
            Sharkanski also wrote plays for the Yiddish stage.  He debuted as a playwright in 1894 with Unsane toykef (A High Holiday hymn), which was a big hit.  Other produced but not published plays would include: R’ yitskhok elkhonen (R. Isaac Elchanen) (1896); Der mishpat (The judgment) (1901), and Yizker (Commemoration of the dead), Iev (Job), Moyred bemalkhes (Rebel in the kingdom), and Khavtseles hasharon, oder di roze fun Sharon (The rose of Sharon)—all 1904.  The last five of these all failed, and this estranged him from the theater.  His published plays included: R’ zelmele, oder toyre iz di beste skhoyre, komedye in fir akten (R. Zelmele or Torah is the best merchandise, a comedy in four acts) (New York, 1900), 34 pp.; Kol nidre, oder di geheyme iden fun madrid (Kol Nidre, or the secret Jews of Madrid), “historical operetta in four acts” (Warsaw: Jewish Theatrical Library, no. 3, 1907), 40 pp.—which had extraordinary success and was later produced on numerous Yiddish stages throughout the Jewish world; Khofni un pinkes, oder degel makhne yude (Ḥofni and Pinḥas, or the banner of the camp of Judah). “a melodrama in four acts” (Warsaw: Jewish Theatrical Library, no. 12, 1907), 48 pp., later edition (Warsaw, 1938).  Sharkanski later published such books as: Idishe nigunim, 1890-1895 (Jewish melodies, 1890-1895) (New York: A. H. Rozenberg, 1895), 62 pp.; A shpittsel fon a purim-shpiler, und nokh andere ertsehlungen, vitsen, anekdoten…und poezye fun berihmte shrayber (A practical joke of a Purim play actor, and other stories, jokes, anecdotes,…and poetry by well-known writers) (New York: Y. Katsenelebogen, 1899), 32 pp.; Goles-lieder, a zamlung fun lieder, bilder un baladen fun yohr 1889 biz 1905 (Poems of the diaspora, a collection of poetry, images, and ballads from the year 1889 until 1905) (New York, 1911), 96 pp.; Di naye amerikanishe hagode (The new American Haggadah) (New York: Hebrew Publishing Co., n.d.), 32 pp., reprint (1927); Di froyen hendler, oder a bestye in menshen-geshtalt, a roman, a vahre bild fun leben in eyrope un amerika (The merchant in women, or a beast in human form, a novel, a true picture of life in Europe and America) (New York, n.d.); R’ amnen, bal unsane toykef (R. Amnon, master of Utekane tokef), three songs from the play Unsane toykef (New York, n.d.), 3 pp.
            B. Gorin writes of Sharkanski’s two best plays (Unsane toykef and Kol nidre) that: “they excel in that they are Yiddish, not just in name but also in content, and that they had a beginning, a middle, and end, although the characters show little life.”  Concerning Sharkanski’s poetry, Zalmen Reyzen notes: “He was especially good at poetry, in which one could see his truly lyrical talent.  He wrote in a consistent rhythm and light style, some of them possessing an authentic poetic tone and often permeated by pleasant, heartfelt humor, although in form one often feels the influence of Morris Rozenfeld.”  In her book, Kafka and the Yiddish Theater: Its Impact on His Work (Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin press, 1971), Evelyn Torton Beck comments that Sharkanski as well as Moyshe Rikhter had a major influence on Kafka in bringing him closer to Yiddish writings.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 4 (New York, 1963); B. Gorin, Di geshikhte fun idishn teater, tsvey toyzent yor teater bay idn (The history of Jewish theater: 2000 years of theater among the Jews), vol. 2 (New York, 1923), pp. 130, 275; Elye (Elias) Shulman, Geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur in amerike, 1870-1900 (History of Yiddish literature in America, 1870-1900) (New York, 1943), pp. 157-66; Yoysef Khaykin, Yidishe bleter in amerike, a tsushteyer tsu der 75-yoriker geshikhte fun der yidisher prese in di fareynikte shtatn un kanade (Yiddish letters in America, a contribution to the seventy-five year history of the Yiddish press in the United States and Canada) (New York, 1946), pp. 88, 208; Roza Shomen-Btashelis, Vi ikh hob zey gekent, portretn fun bavuste idishe perzenlekhkeytn (How I knew them, portraits of well-known Jewish personalities) (Los Angeles, 1955); Yeshurin archive, YIVO (New York); American Jewish Yearbook (1908).
Yekhezkl Lifshits

[1] Zalmen Reyzen offers several versions of the year of Sharkanski’s birth; the year he provides for Sharkanski’s death is also incorrect.

Monday 29 July 2019


            He was the author of Mayn shtetl (dertseylungen, bilder un portretn) (My hometown, stories, images, and portraits) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1937), 128 pp., and Pleytim, der tsedreyter refyudzhi (Refugees, the perturbed refugee) (New York, 1950), 80 pp.
Berl Cohen


KALMEN SHARP (February 2, 1900-March 21, 1971)
            He was born with the surname Shvarts in Bialystok.  In 1927 he arrived in Melbourne.  He wrote poetry for Melbourne-based Yiddish publications.  In book form: Shtimungs lider (Mood poems) (Melbourne, 1944), 39 pp.  He died in Melbourne, Australia.
Moyshe Ayzenbud


YANKEV-TSVI SHARGEL (1905-May 28, 1996)
            He was a poet and literary essayist, born in Khelm (Chełm), Poland, the brother of Hillel Shargel.  He studied with local itinerant teachers and at the yeshivas in Chełm and Odessa.  In 1925 he lived in Czernowitz for a year and in 1926 set off for the land of Israel as a pioneer.  In more recent times, he ran the cultural division of the Peta Tikva city council.  While he was in Czernowitz, he began writing impressions and correspondence pieces for various Yiddish newspapers.  His first poem was published in Arbeter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) in Warsaw (December 1927).  In Israel he belonged to a small group of Yiddish writers, which assembled around Daniel Leybl, and he became the first secretary of the Yiddish Writers’ and Journalists’ Club in the Land of Israel (founded 1928).  He took part in the creation of the periodicals: Onheyb (Beginning) (Jerusalem, 1928), Eyns (One), Tsvey (Two), Shtamen (Roots), Di brik (The bridge), and Eygns One’s own), among others.  He was a contributor and for a certain the editor of the organ of left Labor Zionism, Nayvelt (New world), which played an evident role in the development of Yiddish in Israel.  Aside from the aforementioned serials, he composed poetry and wrote essays in Tel Aviv for: Unzers (Ours) in 1931, Oktyaber (October) in 1931, Yuni (June) in 1931, Bleter far literatur (Pages for literature) in 1936 and 1941, Erets-yisroel shriftn (Writings in the land of Israel) in 1937, and Nayvelt, among others.  In 1954 he became literary editor for the Mapam (United Workers’ Party) periodical Af der vakh (On guard), and from 1961 of the literature page of Yisroel shtime (Voice of Israel).  In addition to poetry, he wrote literary articles and did translations from Hebrew literature.  He was one of the precursors of Yiddish poetry in Israel.  His works include: In bloyen likht, lider (In blue light, poems) (Tel Aviv: Yiddish Writers’ and Journalists’ Club in the Land of Israel, 1937), 71 pp.; Fun vey un gloybn, lider (With sorrow and faith, poems) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1959), 160 pp.; Zunike shveln, lider (Sunny thresholds, poems) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1968), 128 pp.; Toyern in di berg, lider (Gates in the mountains, poems) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1973), 120 pp.; Harbstike troybn, lider (Autumnal grapes, poems) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1977), 113 pp.; Fun onheyb on, tsvishn shrayber un verk (From the beginning, among writers and works) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1977), 288 pp.; Kvaln arum getselt, tsvishn shrayber un verk (Wells around the tent, among writers and works), vol. 2 (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1981), 316 pp.; Likht fun mayn gas, lider (Light from my street, poems) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1984), 132 pp.  Seven of his poems appeared in Arie Shamri’s Vortslen (Roots) (Tel Aviv, 1966).  The book Ale sipim, shirim (At the thresholds, poetry) (Tel Aviv, 1972), 133 pp., is a selection of Shargel’s poetry rendered into Hebrew by several translators.  He translated M. Nemirovski’s Shlikhes in moskve (Assignment in Moscow) (Tel Aviv, 1973), 452 pp.  In 1985 there was published: Yankev-tsvi shargel yoyvl-bukh, an opklayb fun maymorim-opshatsungen vegn shargel (Yankev-Tsvi Shargel jubilee volume, a selection of essays and treatments concerning Shargel) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh), 296 pp., in both Yiddish and Hebrew.  “Shargel’s poetry possesses within it,” wrote Yanlev Glatshteyn, “not only the fruit of creative Yiddish, but of a worn, remembered, biblical one.  When these poems of his are read, they have the taste of an old cantillation, make a deep impression, like the poems that he poured into an initially congealed theme.”

Sources: Yankev Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (In essence) (Buenos Aires, 1960), p. 307; Y. Ḥ. Biltski, Masot (Essays), vol. 1 (Tel Aviv, 1960), pp. 332-34; Avrom Lev, in Unzer shtime (Paris) (December 29, 1969); Yitskhok Kahan, Sparks and flames, descriptions, essays, and monographs) (Melbourne, 1964), 400 pp.; Afn tsesheydveg, literatur-kritik, eseyen, impresyes (At the crossroads, literary criticism, essays, impressions) (Tel Aviv: Hamenorah, 1971), pp. 279-83; Yankl Yakir, in Tsukunft (New York) 9 (1974); Dov Sadan, Toyern un tirn, eseyen un etyudn (Gates and doors, essays and studies) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1979), pp. 126-43; Moyshe Yungman, in Di goldene keyt (Tel Aviv) 67; Yeshurin archive, YIVO (New York); Sol Liptzin, A History of Yiddish Literature (New York, 1972).
Ruvn Goldberg

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 517, 554.]


HILLEL SHARGEL (March 23, 1906-July 3, 1983)
            He was born in Khelm (Chełm), Poland.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshiva.  From his youth, he was associated with the left Labor Zionists.  In 1934 he moved to the land of Israel and worked there as a house painter.  He lived near Tel Aviv.  He debuted in print in 1933 with a poem in Di fraye yugnt (The free youth) in Warsaw, later publishing in: Nayvelt (new world), Unzers (Ours), Bleter far literatur (Pages for literature), the anthology Erets-yisroel-shriftn 1937 (Writings in the land of Israel, 1937), Letste nayes (Latest news), and Yisroel shtime (Voice of Israel)—in Tel Aviv; Inzikh (Introspective) and Hamshekh (Continuation)—New York.  His work also appeared in Arie Shamri’s Vortslen (Roots) (Tel Aviv, 1966), Yizker-bukh khelm (Remembrance vo1ume for Chełm) (Johannesburg, 1954), and Joseph Leftwich, The Golden Peacock: An Anthology of Yiddish Poetry (Cambridge, Mass., 1939).  He co-edited the journal Shtamen (Roots) in Tel Aviv (1936-1943).  He also penned literary critical articles.  In book form: A boym in fenster, lider (A tree in the window, poetry) (Tel Aviv: Hamenorah, 1975), 188 pp.; Fun zibetn likht, lider un poemes (From the seventh candle, poetry) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1983), 204 pp.  He died in Tel Aviv.

Sources: Avrom Lis, in Folksblat (Tel Aviv) 10 (1975); F. Zigelboym, in Yisroel shtime (Tel Aviv) (July 2, 1975); Yisroel Emyot, in Forverts (New York) (July 13, 1975); Shimen Kants, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (September 18, 1975); Dov Sadan, in Yisroel Shtime (February 11, 1976)
Ruvn Goldberg

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 517.]


            He was a feuilletonist, born in Vilna.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshiva.  He was active in the society “Tiferet Baurim” (Glory of young men).  He composed rhymed feuilletons concerned with various events and people for the Vilna weekly newspaper Shabes-nayes (Saturday news) in 1919, the Zionist daily Der fraynd (The friend) in 1921 which from 1924 was Di tsayt (The times), Dos fraye vort (The free word) in 1921, and the Orthodox weekly Dos vort (The word).  His work also appeared in Zalmen Shik, 1000 yor vilne (One thousand years of Vilna) (Vilna, 1939).  In addition, he contributed to Arn-Yitskhok Grodzenski’s Vilner almanakh (Vilna almanac) and Ovnt-bikher (Evening books) in 1939.  Of his rhyming ditties, particular favorites were sung throughout the entirety of Lithuania: “Geyt a yold in kapelyush” (A fool walks along in a [wide, Orthodox, black] hat) and “Oy-vey mame, yashke fort avek” (Oh, no, mama, Yashke left).  He also published his poems: “Himl fun tiferes-bokherim” (Heaven of the glory of young men) in 1911 and “A lidele fun khanike” (A ditty for Hanukkah) of 1930, among others.  He edited the pamphlet: Byografishe notitsn fun tiferes-bokherim (Biographical notes from “Glory of young men”) (Vilna, 1923), 8 pp.  He signed his rhymed feuilletons: Shmerele.  He died in Ponar.

Sources: Shmerke Katsherginski, Khurbn vilne (The Holocaust in Vilna) (New York, 1947), p. 214; Leyzer Ran, 25 yor yung vilne (Twenty-five years of Young Vilna) (New York, 1955).
Leyzer Ran


            He was the author of A dritl yorhundert idishe kooperatsye in besarabye (1901-1933) (One-third of a century of Jewish cooperatives in Bessarabia, 1901-1933) (Kishinev: Farband fun di idishe ḳooperativn in besarabye, 1934), 176 pp; and Dr rekht un flikhtn fun a mitglid fun a lay- un shpor-kase (The rights and duties of a member of a savings and loan office).  He also co-authored: Tsum moment (At the moment) (Kishinev, 1937).
Berl Cohen


MOYSHE SHOR (April 11, 1872-September 28, 1949)
            He was a playwright, born in Galats (Galați), Romania, into a rabbinical family.  He attended religious elementary school and an Odessa yeshiva.  In 1891 he arrived in Lemberg.  On the advice of Avrom Goldfaden, he became a prompter and later an actor in Gimpel’s theater.  He organized his own acting troupe and traveled around Galicia, Bukovina, Romania, and a short time in Moravia and Berlin.  In 1905 he arrived in the United States, where he was active as an actor and theatrical director in Baltimore, Detroit, and Philadelphia.  He was one of the founders and contributors to the first Yiddish daily newspaper in Galicia, Lemberger tageblat (Lemberg daily newspaper) (1908), and in it he published a series of poems.  Later, from time to time, he published sketches and humorous pieces in Chicago’s Idisher kuryer (Jewish courier) and Idisher rekord (Jewish record).  He mainly became popular as a translator and writer of a great number of plays which excelled in their pure Yiddish, vivid dialogue, and fine couplets.  The best actors of that era appeared in his plays.  Shor’s operetta Di rumenishe khasene (The Romanian wedding), with music by Perets Sandler (1915), became a masterpiece on every Yiddish stage.  It played 500 times in Warsaw with Boaz Young in 1925-1926.  In 1960 and 1974, the operetta was staged in Israel.

            Only three of his plays appeared in published form: A mensh zol men zayn (Be a man!), with Anshl Shor (Warsaw: Elizeum, 1910), 92 pp.; Di rumenishe khasene (Warsaw: Sh. Goldfarb, 1925), 65 pp.; Der groyser moment, oder toyt shtrof (The great moment, or death penalty), a melodrama (Warsaw: Sh. Goldfarb, 1926), 32 pp., published anonymously.  Plays staged but not published: Koyheles, oder idisher faust, oder der tayfel als regent (Ecclesiastes, or Jewish Faust, or the devil as regent), Shor’s first play; Emek habokho (The Vale of Tears); In tol fun trern (In the valley of tears), also known as Der shtoltser kaptsn (The proud pauper); Di meraglim, oder di vent fun yerikhe (The spies, or the walls of Jericho); Der yakhsn (The man of privilege); Ir ershte libe (Her first love, with Anshl Shor; Di fremde feygl, oder di tseshterte nest (The strange bird, or the nest destroyed), also known as Di fremde tsurik a heym (The strange one returns home); Mendl beylis (Mendel Beilis) (1913); Af shlekhte vegn (Along bad roads); Milkhome mames (War mothers) (1917); Der farbrekher un zayn tokhter (The criminal and his daughter); Di libe fun humoresk (The love of humor); Di nakht fun der khasene (The night of the wedding); A khasene af tsu lehakhes (A wedding in spite); Ir ershter man (Her first husband); Froy kegn froy (Woman vs. woman); Shklafn fun opium (Slaves of opium); Di gefalene (The fallen); and Di tsebrokhene heym (The destroyed home).  In the YIVO archives in New York, there are another thirty plays that assume Shor to be their author: Geules Yisroel (The salvation of Israel); Shtile libe (Silent love); Hotel soydes (Hotel of secrets); Der veg tsum gehenem (The road to hell); Libe un laydenshaft (Love and passion); Khayim-khaykl fun khirovke (Khayim-Khaykl from Khirovke); Tsvey mames (Two mothers); In a beser sho (At a better time); Tsvishn derner (Amid thorns); Der edelman, oder der melankholiker (The nobleman, or the melancholic); Moyshe goy (Moses, the gentile); Ervakht (Awakened); General gershelman (General Gershelman); Di getsvingene khasene (The forced wedding); Nayer dor (New generation); Zelig itsik (Zelig Itsik); Pilegesh begive, oder mikhemet akhim (The concubine of Givah, or the war of brothers), also known as Shevet benyomen (The staff of Benjamin); Der mord in beysamigdesh (The murder in the Temple in Jerusalem); Malke shvo (Queen of Sheba); Der geler pasport (The yellow passport); Muters klole (Mother’s curse); Tsvey velten (Two worlds); Boris martin (Boris Martin); Khayim grober (Khayim Grober); Moris verner (Morris Verner); Mames brokhe (Mother’s blessing); and Yulyus shifman (Julis Shifman).  And two one-act plays: Shuldig (Guilty) and Der kodesh (The martyr).  His translations include: Richard Foss, Numer 37 (Number 37); Georges Ohnet, Libe un shtolts (Love and pride [original: Liebe und Stoltz]); Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust; Osip Dimov, Shma-yisroel (Hear, O Israel); Molière, Geld-gayts (The miser [original: L’Avare]); Semyon Yushkevich, Der hunger (Hunger [original: Golod]); Fildo (?), Der blinder kenig (The blind king); and others.
            Sholem Perlmuter characterized Shor as follows: “For about sixty years, Moyshe Shor stood in the whirl of Yiddish theater.  As a writer he possessed a clear, sharp pen, with an innovative style full of temperament, concentrated and pungent….  He was the ‘uncrowned leader in the Yiddish theatrical world.’”  He died in Park Ridge, New Jersey.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 4 (New York, 1963); Mikhl Vaykhert, Teater un drame (Theater and drama), vol. 2 (Vilna, 1926), p. 133; Meyer Balaban, in Hundert yor goldfadn (Centenary of [Avrom] Goldfaden) (New York: YIVO, 1940), p. 18; Yankev Mestel, Undzer teater (Our theater) (New York, 1943), see index; Mestel, Zibetsik yor teater-repertuar, tsu der geshikhte fun yidishn teater in amerike (Seventy year of theater repertoire, on the history of Yiddish theater in America) (New York: IKUF, 1954), see index; Yonas Turkov, Farloshene shtern (Extinguished stars) (Buenos Aires, 1953), p. 293.
Ruvn Goldberg