Tuesday, 30 September 2014
Monday, 29 September 2014
Monday, 15 September 2014
BER ORSHANSKI (November 30, 1883 [1884?]-November 15, 1945)
Born in Horodok, Byelorussia [now in Ukraine], in the home of a retailer, he was a prose author, playwright, and critic. Until age sixteen he studied traditional Jewish subject matter. He lived in Riga, 1902-1906, and there took part in the Bundist movement. From 1908 he was in Vilna where he began his literary activities with a one-act play concerning the Revolution of 1905. In 1909 he published a dramatic poem entitled “Der eybiker kholem” (The eternal dream). In 1918 he became a member of the Bolshevik Party, performing underground work in Byelorussia and Lithuania. In the 1920s, he was director of the Jewish section at the Institute of Byelorussian Culture (“Inbelkult”). He wrote novels, stories, plays, children’s stories, memoirs, literary criticism, and current events articles and books. His play Blut (Blood) was staged by the Yiddish State Theater of Byelorussia. His pen names include: Kh. Ber, Z. B. Elenzon, Khayem Mikhlson, and Kulyes un eynikl. He died in Moscow.
His works include: Der eybiker kholem (The eternal dream), a play, in the anthology, Knospn (Buds) (Vilna, 1909); Bay di ershte zunen-shtraln, a drame in dray aktn (At the first ray of the sun, a play in three acts) (Vilna, 1911), 47 pp.; Ana, a drame in dray aktn (Anna, a drama in three acts) (Vilna, 1911); Di legende vegn bolshevizm (The legend of Bolshevism) (Moscow, 1918), 48 pp.; Af khvalyes (On waves), a novel (Moscow, 1924), 83 pp.; In dem bloen kestele (In the little blue box) (Minsk, 1927), 49 pp.; Blut, tragedye in fir aktn (Blood, a tragedy in four acts) (Minsk, 1929), 105 pp.; Arbetndike froy, zay aktiv in gezerd (Working woman, remain active in Gezerd [All-Union Association for the Agricultural Settlement of Jewish Workers in the USSR]) (Moscow: Gezerd, 1930), 14 pp.; In baheltenish, dertseylungen far kinder (In hiding, stories for children) (Moscow, 1930), 80 pp.; Teater-shlakhtn, artiklen-zamlung (Theater battles, a collection of articles) (Moscow, 1931), 230 pp.; Di yidishe literatur in vaysrusland nokh der revolutsye, pruvn fun an oysforshung (Yiddish literature in Byelorussia after the revolution, attempt at an inquiry) (Minsk, 1931), 258 pp.; Artyom (Moscow, 1932), 67 pp.; A tsung, dertseylung far altere kinder (A tongue, story for older children) (Moscow: Emes, 1933), 101 pp.; Kamo, stories (Moscow: Emes, 1937); 131 pp.; In kolime (In Kolyma), stories (Moscow, 1937), 95 pp.; Mit ofene meyler, mayses fun amol (With mouth wide open, stories from the past) (Minsk, 1939), 33 pp.; Epizodn, dertseylungen far kinder (Episodes, stories for children) (Moscow, 1940), 63 pp.; Der geler pas, eynakter (The yellow pass, a one-act play) (Minsk: Melukhe-farlag, 1940), 23 pp.; Kolimer dertseylungen (Stories from Kolyma) (Moscow, 1941), 140 pp. He also edited the anthologies: Der shnayder (The tailor), Shtern (Star) (Vilna), and Oktyaber (October), and the daily newspaper, Der shtern (The star) in Minsk.
Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1; Shmuel Niger, in Yidishe velt (Jewish world) (1914), vol. 2; Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (April 29, 1927); “Shoymers mishpet af sholem aleykhemen” (Shomer’s trial to Sholem-aleykhem), Tsukunft (New York) (January 1947); Moyshe Litvakov, In umru (Apprehensive), vol. 2 (Moscow, 1926), pp. 159-80; Y. Bronshteyn, Atake (Attack) (Minsk, 1931); M. Khashtshevatski, in Royte velt (August 1931); Sh. Bitov, in Farn leninishn etap in der literatur-kritik (Toward the Leninist stage in literary criticism) (Live, 1932); Y. Mestl, in Yivo-bleter 5 (1933); Elye Shulman, “Di yidishe literatur in vaysrusland” (Yiddish literature in Byelorussia), Shikago (February-March 1933); A. Abtshuk, Etyudn un materialn tsu der geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur bavegung in FSRR (Studies and material for the history of the Yiddish literature movement in the Soviet Union) (Kharkov, 1934), p. 25; Yidish-sovetisher shrayber b. orshanski in rige (The Soviet Yiddish writer B. Orshanski in Riga), in Oyfboy (Riga) 11 (June 1941); “B. orshanski” (B[er] Orshanski), in Eynikeyt (Moscow) (November 17, 1945); A. Pomerants, Edelshtot gedenkbukh (Memory book for [Dovid] Edelshtot) (New York, 1953).
[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 31-32.]
Sunday, 14 September 2014
Sunday, 7 September 2014
Friday, 5 September 2014
Thursday, 4 September 2014
KHAYEM [YEFIM] ORLYUK (ORLIUK) (1901-1938)
A writer on politics and a translator, he was born in Vilna, Lithuania. He was a member of a Zionist youth organization. He studied in Berlin and there became a Communist. In 1929 he came to Soviet Russia. In 1934 he became a special correspondent and a contributor to Der emes (The truth) in Moscow. He translated into Yiddish several short books for children by the Russian author Korney Chukovsky. He wrote under the names: Y. Orlyuk, Kh. Orlyuk, and Ye. Arlyuk. He was arrested in 1937 and shot with a number of writers for Der emes, including Moyshe Litvakov. Two of his translations of Chukuvsky’s booklets: Fligele migele (“The chattering fly”), “freely translated” (Moscow, 1935), 16 pp.; and Telefon (Telephone) (Moscow, 1937).
Sources: Emes (Moscow) (July 9, 1935), as well as in issues dated August 23 and 26, and September 14, 1935.
[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 31.]
HERSHL ORLAND (1896-March 16, 1946)
A prose author, he was born in the town of Tetyev (Tetiyiv), near Kiev, Ukraine. He studied in religious elementary school, and later he prepared to attend middle school as an auditor. In 1918 he moved and settled in Kiev. He volunteered and served in the Red Army, 1920-1921. Demobilized from the army in 1922, he began working at the Kiev newspaper, Komunistishe fon (Communist banner). The same year he published his first stories in that venue; his writings soon attracted attention for their juicy language, their lyrical quality, and their colorful depictions of nature. In 1926 he was employed in the villages of Volhynia in land reclamation work, and he later embodied his experiences there in his novel Hreblyes (Dikes), part 1 (Kiev, 1929), part 2 (1931), part 3 (1935)—adapted for use in school, 1938—which attracted recognition for him as an important author. In his second novel, Aglomerat (Agglomerate, 1935), he described a metallurgical plant in Kerch; social-economic reconstruction of the Jewish people who came from the towns into industry provided the main theme of both novels. For many years in succession, he edited the Kharkov newspaper Shtern (Star) and the magazine Sovetishe literatur (Soviet literature), among others. He was much consumed by journalistic and translation work. In the war years, he was active in the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee. He died in Moscow.
His writings include: Grobers (Ruffians) (Kiev, 1930), 68 pp.; Hreblyes (Kharkov rpt., 1931), 294 pp.; Shlakhtn, fuftsn yor oktyaber in der kinstlerisher literatur (Battles, fifteen years since October  in artistic literature), compiled with Kh. Gildin and A. Kahan (Kharkov, 1932), 543 pp.; Aglomerat (Kiev, 1935), 228 pp.; A gast (A guest), a story (Kharkov-Odessa: Kinder-farlag, 1936), 15 pp.; Shikere gendz (Drunk geese) (Kharkov-Odessa, 1936), 12 pp.; Sorele in vald (Little Sarah in the woods), a story (Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1937), 12 pp.; A mayse mit a layb (A story with a heart) (Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1938), 14 pp.; Polyesye, a story (Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1939), 19 pp.; Infirn zaynen mir geforn (We led the way) (Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1940), 33 pp. His translations include: Aleksandr Pushkin, Kapitanskaya dochka as Dem kapitans tokhter (The captain’s daughter) (Kiev, 1936), 109 pp.; Pavel Postyshev, Iz proshlogo as Fun der fargangenheyt (From the past) (Kiev, 1936), 39 pp.; Nikolai Ostrovsky, Kak zakalyalas' stal' as Vi s’hot zikh farhartevet dos shtol (How the steel was tempered), adapted for older children (Kiev, 1937); Vos geven un vos gevorn, zamlbukh (What was and what has become, anthology), compiled with B. Slutski (Kiev, 1937), 214 pp.; Victor Hugo, Les Travailleurs de la Mer as Di yam-arbeter (Toilers of the sea) (Kiev, 1940), 359 pp.; Ivan Franko, Boa konstriktor (Boa constrictor) (Kiev, 1940), 103 pp. In addition his work appeared in: Ukraine, Almanakh fun yidishe sovetishe shrayber tsum alfarbandishn shrayber-tsuzamenfor (Almanac, from Soviet Jewish writers to the all-Soviet conference of writers) (Kharkov, 1934), Der arbeter in der yidisher literatur (The worker in Yiddish literature), Deklamater fun der sovetisher yidisher literatur (Reciter of Soviet Yiddish literature) (Moscow, 1934), Tsum tsig (To the objective), Komsomolye (Communist youth), and Lenin un di kinder (Lenin and children) (Kharkov, 1934).
Sources: Y. Bronshteyn, Atake (Attack) (Minsk, 1931), pp. 248-79; Kh. Dunyets, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (February 20, 1933); Shmuel Zhitkovski, Pruvn (Endeavors) (Kharkov, 1934), p. 92; M. Mizhiritski, in Shtern (Minsk) (September, 1936), p. 84; “Tvishn di sovetishe yidishe shrayber” (Among the Soviet Yiddish writers), Eynikeyt (Moscow) (June 7, 1942); Aleksander Pomerants, Inzhenern fun neshomes, di shrayber un bikher fun der yidisher sovetisher literatur (Engineers of the souls, the writers and books of Soviet Yiddish literature) (New York, 1943), p. 41; A. Pomerants, in Morgn-frayhayt (May 17, 1946); Arn Kushnirov, in Naye prese (Paris) (July 27, 1945); “Hershl Orland,” Eynikeyt (Moscow) (March 19, 1946), obituary with about 150 undersigned; N. Y. Gotlib, in Keneder odler (March 30, 1053).
[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 30-31.]