Wednesday, 20 December 2017
Tuesday, 19 December 2017
Monday, 18 December 2017
He was a journalist and a leader in Gezerd (All-Soviet Association for the Agricultural Settlement of Jewish Workers in the USSR) in Ukraine and in greater Russia. He worked as a correspondent for the newspapers Emes (Truth) in Moscow and Oktyabr (October) in Minsk. The principal themes of his writings from the late 1920s through the early 1930s were the Jewish village and the Jewish peasant. As emissary for Gezerd, he traveled from Ukraine to Birobidzhan, and from there he sent in jottings and reportage pieces about the lives of the Jewish emigrants. In 1932 Emes publishing house brought out his book A land in rishtevanyes, fartseykhenungen fun birebidzhaner rayon, vinter 1932 (A land in scaffolding, notes from Birobidzhan district, winter 1932) (Moscow), 80 pp., which was based on his writings about the district published earlier in the newspapers Emes and Birobidzhaner shtern (Birobidzhan star).
He also authored: Bolshevistisher shnit af di sotsyalistishe felder (Bolshevik harvest on socialist fields) (Moscow: Gezerd, 1931), 61 pp.; Kolektivizatsye un kultur-arbet in yidishn dorf (Collectivization and cultural work in a Jewish village) (Moscow: Central Publishers, 1931), 48 pp.; Komune “der emes” (Commune “The truth”) (Moscow: Central Publishers, 1931), 32 pp.
Sources: N. Rubinshteyn, Dos yidishe bukh in sovetnfarband (The Yiddish book in the Soviet Union) (Minsk, 1932), see index; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index.
Khayim Leyb Fuks
[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 388; and Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 247.]
Sunday, 17 December 2017
MOYSHE NOTOVITSH (1912-1968)
He was a literary scholar and critic, born in Berdichev, Ukraine. He graduated middle school and the literature department in the Jewish division of the Odessa Jewish Pedagogical Institute. In 1938 he defended a dissertation on the life and work of the classic Yiddish writer Yitskhok-Yoyel Linetski at the Lenin Pedagogical Institute in Moscow, for which he was awarded the academic title of “candidate in philological sciences.” The dissertation was later published as a separate volume: Yitskhok-yoyel linetski, 1839-1939 (tsu zayn hundert-yorikn yubiley) (Yitskhok-Yoyel Linetski, 1839-1939, on the 100th anniversary of his birth) (Moscow: Emes, 1939), 61 pp. He was invited in 1945 to become a lecturer in literature in the literature and art faculty at the theater school of the Moscow Yiddish State Theater, directed by Shloyme Mikhoels. He gave lectures on Yiddish literature as well at the Odessa and Kiev Pedagogical Institutes. Later, when the theater and its school were closed in 1949, Notovitsh moved to Kazan, where for the last two decades of his life he worked as a lecturer at Kazan Pedagogical Institute, teaching Russian and Western European literature; he also ran the courses for senior qualifications to teachers of philology. He debuted in print in 1932 with articles and reviews of books by Soviet Yiddish writers, such as Meyer Viner, Motl Grubyan, Moyshe Litvakov, Yashe Bronshteyn, Leyb Kvitko, and others. He later frequently published in the newspaper of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee Eynikeyt (Unity) in Moscow, especially articles on Jewish writers who died at the front. Later still, his literary research excelled in works appearing in Sovetish heymland (Soviet homeland) (such as in issues 2 and 3 for 1961) in Moscow. He died in Kazan.
In book form: Kritik un kritiker (Criticism and critics) (Moscow: Sovetski pisatel, 1983), 63 pp.
Sources: A. Pomerants, Almanakh fun yidishn folks-ordn (Almanac of the Jewish people’s order) (New York, 1940), p. 287; A. Kushnirov, in Naye prese (Paris) (July 27, 1945); B. Mark, in Folks-shtime (Lodz) 49 (1947); Y. Yanasovitsh, in Di naye tsayt (Buenos Aires) (October 22, 1953); N. Mayzil, Dos yidishe shafn un der yidisher shrayber in sovetnfarband (Jewish creation and the Jewish worker in the Soviet Union) (New York, 1959), see index; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index.
[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 387; and Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 246-47.]
Friday, 15 December 2017
YUDE NOVAKOVSKI (1879-June 4, 1933)
He was a commentator on current events, born in a town in Chernigov (Chernihiv) district, Ukraine. He studied in religious elementary school and the Nyezhin (Nizhyn) yeshiva as well as with his father, Zalmen-Mortkhe Novakovski, a well-known rabbi. At age eighteen he received ordination into the rabbinate. For secular knowledge, he was an autodidact, demonstrating ability in mathematics and economic science. Already in his yeshiva years, he was drawn to social and political activities of the Zionist socialists. He was also active in the group “Vozrozhdenie” (Renaissance), and later he was one of the leaders and theoreticians of the Sejmists. He was arrested twice (1905-1906). In 1912 he worked as the director of a coal mine in the city of Krivoy Rog (Kryvyi Rih). At the time of the Beilis Trial in 1913, he was in Kiev assisting the Moscow rabbi, Yaakov Mazeh, while preparing materials for the defense. During the years of WWI, he was one of the founders of Jewish schools in Kiev. Over the years 1918-1920, he held the position of finance minister in the Soviet regime; 1921-1926, he was the Soviet commercial attaché in Prague, Berlin, and London; and in 1929 and later, he was a lecturer on political economy in the division of Yiddish language and literature in the pedagogical faculty of the Number Two Moscow State University. He debuted in print with articles on political and economic themes in 1906, such as those for Folks-shtime (Voice of the people), organ of the Sejmists in Vilna. In the Soviet years, he was a member of the editorial board of Naye tsayt (New times) in Kiev (1917), later publishing in: Di royte velt (The red world) in Kharkov-Kiev; and Der shtern (The star) in Kharkov (1928), in which he placed a series of articles entitled “Ekonomishe shmuesn” (Chats on economics); and elsewhere. He also placed work in Der apikoyres (The heretic); and Komunistishe fon (Communist banner) in Kiev (1919). He also was said to have published a Russian-language pamphlet on how the socialist state can also exploit. He wrote primarily on economic and anti-religious matters. He died in Moscow.
In book form: Milkhome un sholem (War and peace) (Ekaterinoslav: Visnshaft, 1919), 48 pp.; Di agrar-frage (The agrarian issue) (Ekaterinoslav: Visnshaft, 1919), 44 pp.; Gots straptshes, kleykodesh (God’s advocates, clergymen) (Kiev: Kultur-lige, 1928), 59 pp., second edition (Kiev, 1930), 62 pp.; Yidishe yontoyvim, heylike minhogim un zeyere vortslen (Jewish holidays, sacred rites and their origins) (Kiev: Kultur-lige, 1929), 95 pp., second edition (Kiev: Kultur-lige, 1930), reprint (Piotrków, 1933), 64 pp.; Der rekhter opnoyg un der sholem mit im (Right deviation and peace with it) (Kharkov: Central Publications, 1929), 60 pp.; with Khayim Gurevitsh, Kooperatsye un dos yidishe shtetl (Cooperation and the Jewish town) (Moscow: Central Publications, 1929), 109 pp.; Kolektive virtshaft (Collective economy) (Moscow: Gezerd, 1929), 48 pp.
Sources: M. Gutman, in Royte pinkes (Red records) (Warsaw: Kultur-lige, 1921), p. 168; Visnshaftlekhe yorbikher (Scientific yearbook), vol. 1 (Moscow, 1929), p. 254; M. Zilberfarb, Gezamlte shriftn (Collected writings), vol. 2 (Warsaw-Paris: Zilberfarb fund, 1936); Zilberfarb, in Sotsyalistisher teritoryalizm, zikhroynes un materyaln tsu der geshikhte fun di parteyen ss, ys un “fareynikte,” ershter zamlbukh (Socialist territorialism, memoris and materials for the history of the S. S. [Zionist socialist], Y. S. [Sejmist], and “Fareynikte” parties, first collection) (Paris, 1934); Kh. Sh. Kazdan, Fun kheyder un shkoles biz tsisho (From religious and secular primary schools to Tsisho) (Mexico City, 1956), see index; Y. Beyner, “Fun poyle-tsien tsu seymovtses” (From Labor Zionism to Sejmist), in Vitebsk amol (Vitebsk in the past) (New York, 1956), pp. 340-41; Sh. Ayzenshtat, Perakim betoledot tenuat hapoalim hayehudit (Chapters in the history of the organization of Jewish laborers) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index; Solomon Schwartz, The Jew in the Soviet Union (Syracuse University Press, 1951), p. 122; oral information from Novakovski’s sister, Dr. Roze Novakovski, in New York.
[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 246.]
Thursday, 14 December 2017
YUDE (DOVID) NOVOGRUDSKI (b. 1896)
The brother of Bernard and Emanuel Novogrudski, he was a translator and journalist, born in Warsaw, Poland. He received both a Jewish and a general education. He worked as a teacher of natural science in Warsaw schools. For a time he was active in the socialist Jewish youth organization “Tsukunft” (Future) in Warsaw. His writing activities commenced with articles in the Bundist biweekly serial Sotsyalistishe yugnt-shtime (Voice of socialist youth) in Warsaw (1919). After the civil war, he left for Soviet Russia, where he was an active leader in Jewish school and cultural work. In Soviet Russia he was a contributor to the journals: Yungvald (Young forest), Pyoner (Pioneer), and Af di vegn tsu der nayer shul (On the road to the new school), and to the newspaper Der emes (The truth), all in Moscow, as well as such serial publications as: Oktyabr (October) and Der shtern (The star), in Minsk and Kiev—in which, on the whole, he wrote about cultural and school matters, reviews of school books, and translations from Russian into Polish. He was also well-known as a compiler of a series of textbooks for Jewish schools. For a time he lived in Moscow, later in Alma-Ata and other places. In 1937, during the Moscow show trials, he was exiled to various camps, before being freed in 1944 and settling in Moscow. The last information known of him dates to the early 1950s, when he was living in Moscow.
He was the author of: Pyonern, yunge naturalistn (Pioneers, young naturalists), a textbook of natural science (Moscow: Shul un bukh, 1925), 143 pp., with drawings and pictures. He translated from Russian to Yiddish: B. Ignatiev and S. Sokolov, Kuk zikh tsu tsu der natur (Pay attention to nature) (Moscow: Shul un bukh, 1927), 4 booklets, each 64 pp.; and M. Agapov and S. Sokolov, Yunger geograf (Young geographer), geography textbook (Moscow: Central People’s Publishers, USSR, 1927), 126 pp.
Sources: Biblyografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Bibliographic yearbooks from YIVO) (Warsaw, 1928), see index; Y. Ratner and M. Kvitni, Dos yidishe bukh in f.s.s.r. in di yorn 1917-1921 (The Yiddish book in the USSR for the years 1917-1921) (Kiev, 1930), nos. 700-2; M. Anilovitsh and M. Yofe, Shriftn fun psikhologye un pedagogik (Writings on psychology and pedagogy) 1 (Vilna: YIVO, 1933), p. 492; information from Emanuel Novogrudski and Sh. Herts in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks
[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 245-46.]