Sunday 30 November 2014


ROKHL BOYMVOL (March 4, 1914-June 16, 2000)

Daughter of the playwright and theatrical director Yehude-Leyb Boymvol and the wife of Zyame Telesin (Ziame Telessin), she was a Soviet poet and prose writer, born in Odessa.  During WWII, she was evacuated to Tashkent, Inner Asia.  From 1919 she was living in Moscow.  In 1930 she graduated from the musical technikum in Moscow, and in 1936 from the literature faculty of the Jewish division at the second Moscow State University.  She began in her youth to compose poetry, even before she learned to read, and to publish her poems in Pyoner (Pioneer), a children magazine in Moscow (issue no. 3, 1926).  Many years later, she explained: “It began from my enjoying the rhyming of one word to another. Then, I found myself enjoying speaking with well-placed language. Then, I found the craft of creating to my liking, but then it just might be that everything was backwards: first I enjoyed the crafting and then imparting it with well-placed language, and only then would I get to rhyming, though fastest of all being when everything transpired at the same time.” The poet’s creative way was not at all easy—it was always associated with suffering and drudgery. When Central Publishers (Tsentrfarlag) in 1930 brought out her first poetry collection at age fifteen or sixteen, the journalist and author Moyshe Kats wrote in a preface: “Rokhl Boymvol is no child prodigy who ought surprise us and demonstrate that just what a child can write as a grown, mature artist. She is even better than that: she demonstrates with her creative work what an adult artist is unable to do with such authenticity and naturalness—she shows us the experiences of a child in the process of their training.” She went on to publish many more books—poetry collections, children’s tales, and stories for adults, as well as linguistic essays. She published in Eynikeyt (Unity) in Moscow, Naye prese (New press) in Paris, and elsewhere.  On the whole until 1971 when she made aliya to Israel, she brought out eighteen collections of her poetry and booklets in Yiddish for young and old. Her poetic talent in Israel amassed eight volumes of poetry in Yiddish, one in Russian, and two translated into Hebrew. One need also note her extraordinary work on Yiddish idiomatic expressions that she systematically carried out and placed in various publications. She was among the more talented of Soviet Yiddish women writers of the younger generation.  She died in Jerusalem.

His first collection of poetry Kinder-lider (Children’s poems) (Moscow: Central Publishers, 1930), 31 pp.  Her subsequent books include: Pyonern, kinder-lider (Pioneers, children’s poetry) (Moscow, 1934), 87 pp.; Tare (Tara), a story in verse (Moscow, 1934), 14 pp.; Lider (Poems) (Minsk, 1936), 80 pp.; Bertshuk brud, a kinder-maysele (Filthy Bertshuk, a children’s story) (Minsk, 1936), 22 pp.; Lider (Poems) (Minsk: State Publishers, 1936), 77 pp.; Dos tanele (Spruce [Christmas tree]), children’s poems (Moscow, 1938), 15 pp.; Vaynshl-beymer bliyen (Sour cherry trees bloom), poems (Minsk: State Publishers, 1939), 82 pp.; Lider (Poems) (Moscow: Emes, 1940), 78 pp.; Mayselekh far kinder (Stories for children) (Moscow: Emes, 1941); Libshaft, lider (Love, poems) (Moscow, 1947), 141 pp.  Oysgebenkt (Longed for), poems (Tel Aviv: Peretz Publ., 1972), 190 pp.; A mol iz geven a helfand, mayselekh far kleyn un groys (There was once an elephant, stories for young and old) (Tel Aviv: Peretz Publ., 1973), 73 pp.; Stikhi pasnykh let (Poetry over the years) (Jerusalem: Eygns, 1976), 126 pp.; Fun lid tsu lid (From poem to poem) (Jerusalem: Eygns, 1977), 215 pp.; Dray heftn (Three notebooks), poems (Jerusalem: Eygns, 1979), 178 pp.; Aleyn dos lebn (Life all alone), poetry and aphorisms (Jerusalem, 1983), 184 pp.; Mayn yidish (My Yiddish) (Tel Aviv: Peretz Publ., 1988), 205 pp. Shire zemanim shonim, 1935-1978 (Poetry of different times, 1935-1978) (Tel Aviv, 1989), 108 pp.; Vundervelt (Wonder world) (Jerusalem: Haarets, 1990), 200 pp.; Antkegn dem vos ir zogt, idyomatishe oysdrukn (Contrary to what you say, idiomatic expressions) (Jerusalem: Haarets, 1990), 71 pp.; Tsugebundkeyt (Attachment) (Jerusalem, 1995); Treyst un troyer, hundert naye lider (Comfort and grief, 100 new poems) (Jerusalem: Haarets, 1998), 127 pp.

Her work was also included in: Bafrayte brider, literarishe zamlung (Liberated brethren, literary anthology) (Minsk, 1939); Deklamater fun der sovetisher yidisher literatur (Reciter of Soviet Yiddish literature) (Moscow, 1934); and Tsum zig (To victory) (Moscow, 1944).  Between 1948 and 1970, she published a series of children’s booklets in Russian with such titles (in translation) as: The Puppet Goes off, The Checkered Goose, Various Stories, Under One Roof, Depending on Who Goes, A Pitchfork with a Raddish, Sun and Wind, Facing the Sun, and All Together the Best Present.

Sources: B. Y. Byalostotski, in Yorbukh (Annual) (New York, 1939); H. Beryozkin, in Shtern (Minsk) (December 1937); Eynikeyt (Moscow) (January 1, 1947); A. Kushnirov, in Naye prese (Paris) (July 27, 1945).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 70-71; and Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 39-40.]


YEHUDE-LEYB BOYMVOL (1892-April 1920)
     Born in Warsaw to well-to-do parents, he studied in yeshiva.  At age seventeen he became a theater prompter.  In 1912 he was an operetta director for Julius Adler’s theater in Lodz.  He was the author of a series of operettas and one-act plays, such as: Oyf a repetitsye (At rehearsal), Fir farlibte, oder d”r zayfnbloz (Four in love, or Dr. Soap Bubbles), Dire-gelt (Apartment rent).  In books: Lebedik un lustik (Alive and cheerful), a comedic operetta in four acts (Odessa, 1914); Madam-fraylayn (Madame), an operetta in three acts (Odessa, 1914); Khatskele kol-boynik (Khatskele, the rascal), an operetta in four acts (Kharkov, 1918); Oyfn ganef brent dos hitl, komedye (When the thief burnt the hat, a comedy) (Kharkov: Rampe, 1918), 16 pp.; and he edited Der idisher artist (The Jewish artist) (Kharkov, 1918), 32 columns.  During the years of the revolution, he was an initiator of the first conference of Yiddish artists in Kiev, and he was a teacher at the Yiddish Dramatic Theater in Kiev.  He died at the hands of a murderer in Ukraine.  He was the father of the Soviet Yiddish writer, Rokhl Boymvol.

Sources: Z. Zilbertsvayg, Teater-leksikon, vol. 1; Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1; H. Bloshteyn, “Yehude-leyb boymvol (tsum 25nt yortog fun zayn toyt)” (Yehude-Leyb Boymvol, on the 25th anniversary of his death), Eynikeyt (Moscow) (May 22, 1945).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 70.]

Friday 28 November 2014



Born in Zlotshev (Złoczew), Lodz region.  He attended religious elementary school and worldly subjects with a private teacher.  He later graduated from a Jewish public high school in Konin, Kalish region.  In 1925 he entered Warsaw University.  He was an active leader in the youth circle around Ber Borokhov, in the “community evening courses for laborers,” and in the academic circles surrounding Borokhov—all in Warsaw.  He published articles, principally on cultural and educational matters, in the left Poale-Tsiyon youth organ, Di fraye yugnt (Free youth), in Warsaw.  In 1927 he joined the Communists.  He later made a trip to China and published a series of articles and reportage pieces about China in the Warsaw paper, Haynt (Today).  At the time of the outbreak of WWII, he escaped to Brest and was a contributor to Brisker emes (Brest truth).  He published as a book: Khine (China) (Vilna, 1940), 268 pp. (with pictures), likely the last Yiddish-language book published in Vilna.  After Soviet Russia was betrayed by Hitler, he moved further into Russian terrain.  His subsequent career is unknown.


He lived in Warsaw and was a regular contributor to the Orthodox press: Der yud (The Jew), Dos yidishe vort (The Jewish word), Togblat (Daily news), and Yugnt-bleter (Youth news), all in Warsaw.  He was a teacher and the director of Orthodox schools, as well as the director of the Khavatselet high school, in Warsaw.  He authored textbooks for use in religious education: Vezot haberakha (And this is the blessing), “a volume to study religion in school and at home, concerning the blessings, prayers, and Jewish laws, in Loshn-koydesh [Hebrew and Aramaic] and in Yiddish” (Bendin: Levin Alter), 50 pp.; Shul-bukh far yidisher geshikhte, loytn tanakh (Schoolbook for Jewish history, according to the Hebrew Bible), part one (Bendin: Levin Alter, 1929).  He was killed while under Nazi rule.

Source: Oral information from Rabbi Dr. M. Shvartsman in Winnipeg, Canada.


SORE BOYM (SARAH BAUM) (1900-1942)
     Born in Bendin (Będzin), Poland, into a semi-assimilated, bourgeois family.  According to Kh. L. Fuks, she was born in Sosnovits, Poland.  She graduated from a Polish high school and wrote poetry in Polish.  In 1917 she switched to Yiddish.  Early in 1919 she came to Lodz and worked as an educator in wealthy Jewish homes.  She began to publish in Gezangen (Songs), edited by Hershele, vol. 2 (Lodz, 1920).  She published as well in S’feld (The field), edited by Y. Rabon and Kh. L. Fuks, issue 1-6 (Lodz, 1919-1923); Lodzher folksblat (Lodz daily news) under L. Kahan; Zaglembyer tsaytung (Zagłębie newspaper); and others.  In 1922 she married and moved to Paris, where she was active for a short time in literary affairs.  Concerning her subsequent career, we have no new information.

Source: E. Korman, ed., Yidishe dikhterins, antologye (Jewish women poets, anthology) (Chicago, 1928).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 70.]


     Born in Brisk (Brześć) in Lithuania, his father’s name was Arn (Aharon), author of Sefer seyag latorah (On making a fence around the Torah).  In 1833 he came with his family to Palestine, settling in Tsfat (Safed), and he became a member there of the Community of the Disciples of the Vilna Gaon (Kolel perushim talmide hagra).  In 1837 he visited Poland and Russia as a messenger from the Kolel to bring assistance to the impoverished community in Tsfat [victim of a pogrom in 1838].  At that time he published his text, Korot haitim (Events of the times), in which he recounted the experiences of Tsfat Jews at the time of the peasant uprising in Palestine.  In addition, he also gave evidence in this advice about tourism in Palestine.  The book was published in Vilna in 1839 (reprinted in Jerusalem in 1946), and so that Jews who knew no Hebrew would be able to read it, he translated it into Yiddish and had it published in Warsaw in 1841).

Source: D. Tidhar, Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the founders and builders of Israel), vol. 2, pp. 560-61.


TUVYE BOYM (c. 1910-1943)
     Born in Sosnovits (Sosnowiec), Poland, to poor intellectual parents.  He attended secular high school.  He began writing in Polish, later approaching Yiddish literature and on his own began writing in Yiddish (1932).  He published in Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) in 1936; and together with Hershl Danziger, Leyzer Shikman, and others, he brought out a literary journal, Yung zaglembye (Young Zagłębie), where he published his first poems.  For his series of poems, “Vayse flekn” (White spots), he received an award in the Ruben Ludvig Poetry Competition from the journal In zikh (Instrospection) (New York, 1937).  Together with Froym Kleyman and Leyzer Shilman, he compiled a booklet of poems entitled Gerangl (Struggle) (Sosnovits, 1933).  He was in the Sosnovits ghetto, and he was deported to Auschwitz in the summer of 1943.

Source: Yankev Glatshteyn, in Yidisher kemfer (New York) (January 31, 1947).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 70.]

Thursday 27 November 2014


BRAYNDL BOYM (BRANDEL BAUM) (1896-September 22, 1946)
     Born in Mazovyetsk, Poland, she received a strict religious education, but against the will of her parents she entered a Russian high school.  She became a teacher in 1919 in a Polish public school in Petrikov.  After marrying in 1922, she settled in Lodz, where she was active in women’s circles of “Agudat Yisrael” (Agudas Yisroel) and in philanthropic institutions.  She began writing Russian and Polish poetry for the local newspapers.  Later, she moved to Yiddish and published poems and articles in Der yud (The Jew) and Dos yidishe togblat (Jewish daily news) in Warsaw, and in publications of the Beys-yankev schools, among others.  In 1925 she moved to Palestine and began writing in Hebrew and publishing in Bat yisrael (Daughter of Israel), Baderekh (On the road), and other serials.  Among her books: Ketavim levat yisrael (Writings for a daughter of Israel) (Tel Aviv, 1954), 144 pp.  She died in Tel Aviv.

Source: D. Tidhar, Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the founders and builders of Israel), vol. 4 (Tel Aviv, 1950), pp. 1869-1870.


     Born in the town of Felshtin, Kamenets-Podolski, Ukraine, to a religious, poor parents.  He attended religious elementary school and yeshivas.  In 1906 he was living in the United States, where he became a worker in a tailor’s shop.  By 1936 he was living in New York, and subsequent to that in Willes-Barre, Pennsylvania.  He was the owner of a tailoring workshop and active in the national union.  He served in the American army, 1916-1918, and fought on the war front.  He began writing stories in 1935 (“Oyf der elter” [In one’s declining years], Der yidisher zhurnal [The Jewish journal], Toronto).  He published novellas, stories, and one-act plays—with realistic content but with a quiet, lyrical tone—in Der yidisher zhurnal in Toronto, Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal, Yidishe shtime (Voice of Yiddish) in Mexico, Yidishe velt (Jewish world) in Philadelphia, Shikager kuryer (Chicago courier) in Chicago, and Nay vokhnblat (New weekly news), Oyfsnay (Afresh), Nyu-yorker vokhnblat (New York weekly newspaper), and from time to time Forverts (Forward) in New York.  His novel, which concerned the life of an American soldier during the years of WWI, was published in Der yidisher zhurnal and in Keneder odler.  He also produced two volumes of stories: Oyf a shmoler stezhke (On a narrow footpath) (New York, 1941), 286 pp.; and Geknipt un gebundn, dertseylungen (Tied up and bound, stories) (Wilkes-Barre, 1961), 500, xii pp.    He was a member of the editorial committee for the memory volume, Felshtin, dedicated to the victims of pogroms in Ukraine in the years 1920-1921 (New York, 1937) (670 pp. in Yiddish and 23 in English, with pictures); a story of his was included therein.  He received two awards from YIVO for his memoirs: Farvos ikh hob farlozt mayn alte heym (Why I left my old home) and Mayne finf yor in der trayengel-fabrik (My five years in the Triangle Factory).  He died in New York.

Sources: Moyshe Shtarkman, in Tog (New York) (October 25, 1942); Dr. Y. Unterman, in Yontef-bleter 1-3 (Philadelphia, 1945).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 70.]


Together with Yoysef Danilyak and Menashe Himlshteyn, he edited Mezritsher lebn (Mezeritch life), which appeared as a supplement to Shedletser vokhnblat (Shedlets weekly news), a photocopy of which can be found in the anthology Mezritsh (Mezeritch) (Buenos Aires, 1952), on p. 437.  He published articles and translations from Hebrew in Mezritsher lebn, Tribune (Tribune), and Podlyaser tsaytung (Podlaska newspaper), using the pseudonym “Tsvi Kashet.”  He was murdered by the Nazis.

Source: Y. Horn, in the anthology, Mezritsh (Buenos Aires, 1952).

Wednesday 26 November 2014


KHEVL (CHEWEL) BUZMAN (December 24, 1897-April 26, 1971)
     Born in Vilna, he attended an “improved” religious elementary school and a school attached to the teachers’ institute in Vilna.  At the time of WWI, he was living in Germany.  He acted with the Vilna Troupe, among other groups.  From 1938 he was living in Argentina, and from 1950 in Poland.  He was the author of a booklet entitled Hantbukh far aktyorn (Handbook for actors) (Warsaw, 1937), 64 pp.  He died in Warsaw.

Sources: Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidish teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 1, pp. 146-47; Dr. R. Feldshuh, Yidisher gezelshaftlekher leksikon (Jewish communal handbook), vol. 1 (Warsaw, 1939), pp. 564-65.


SHAYE BUDIN (b. October 17, 1899)
     Born in Karostishov (Korostyshiv), Ukraine.  He emigrated to the United States in 1915, and there he studied and undertook various trades.  For several years he worked for HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society) in New York.  Over the course of years, he published poetry mainly in Communist publications.  Among his books: Teg un lebn (Days and life) (New York, 1955), 189 pp.; Lebn mayne lider (Living my songs) (New York: IKUF, 1969), 240 pp.; Lider mayne teg, zamlung 1969-1983 (Songs of my days, anthology 1969-1983) (New York: IKUF, 1983), 167 pp.

Sources: A. Kurts, in Zamlbukh (Anthology) 5 (New York) (January-February-March 1955); M. Kats, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (March 6, 1955); Sh. Shtern, in Vokhnblat (Toronto) (March 24, 1955).

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 69.]


LOUIS B. BOUDIN (February 15, 1874-May 29, 1952)
Foreshortened name of L. Budyanov (Boudianoff), he was born in a village in the Kanyev region, Kiev district.  He came to the United States in 1891.  In 1898 he completed his studies to be a lawyer.  From 1897 he was participating in the Jewish socialist press, mainly with Tsukunft (Future), Arbeter-tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper), Naye tsayt (New times), Progres (Progress), Nayer gayst (New spirit), Sotsyal-demokrat (Social democrat), Forverts (Forward), and Di naye velt (The new world).  He published political-economic treatises and was a pioneer in Marxist literary criticism.  He wrote also for English- and German-language newspapers, and he published works in English on Marxism and constitutional rights.  Over the years 1910-1912, he was on the editorial board of Tsukunft.  From 1917 he was a leftist socialist, and then in 1919 he left the Socialist Party.  He is considered a major expert on parliamentary rights.  He primarily defended unions and all manner of other laborers’ organizations and their leaders.  For twenty-four years he was tied to the American “ORT” (Association for the Promotion of Skilled Trades), and over the years 1933-1948 he was chairman of the managing committee of “ORT.”  Among his books: The Theoretical System of Karl Marx in the Light of Recent Criticism (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1907), 286 pp., which was translated into German and Russian; and Government by Judiciary (New York: W. Godwin, Inc., 1932), 2 vols.

Louis B. Boudin in 1907

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1; Yevreyskaya entsiklopediya (Jewish encyclopedia) (St. Petersburg), vol. 5; Gr. Aronson, in Tsukunft (New York) (May-June 1942); M. Vintshevski, in Tsukunft (January 1912), pp. 6-11; M. Zametkin, in Tsukunft (October 1907), pp. 51-58; Y. Milkh, in Tsukunft (March 1907), pp. 39-44; Dr. Y. A. Merison, “Der nayer anarkhizm” (The new anarchism), Tsukunft (May 1907), pp. 27-33; Shmuel Niger, in Tog (New York) (August 28, 1932); Niger in Tsukunft (December 1940); Leon Kobrin, Derinerungen fun a yidishn dramaturg (Remembrances of a Jewish dramatist), vol. 1 (New York, 1925), p. 83; E. Shulman, Geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur in amerike (History of Jewish literature in America) (New York, 1943), pp. 64, 78-83; Moyshe Shtarkman, in Tsukunft (May-June 1942); Morgn-frayhayt (May 31, 1952); F. A. N., “Tog eyn, tog oys” (Day in, day out), Morgn-frayhayt (June 5, 1952).


SHIYE (JOSHUA) BUDZON (December 5, 1858-November 1929)
     Born in Hanushishok, Vilna region, to a father who worked as a weaver.  He attended religious elementary school, and thereafter studied in the Remayle Yeshiva in Vilna, later still turning to general, worldly knowledge.  He became a teacher for well-to-do children.  He moved to England and became a peddler.  He then returned home and took up writing pulp fiction.  His first novel, entitled A gitraye vaybl khlebn, eyne kharakteristishe und romantishe ertseylung (A devoted wife, upon my word, a characteristic and romantic story), 98 pp., was published in Vilna in 1880, reprinted in 1891 and 1895.  His publisher, Y. L. M”ts, also published his novels: Homen mit mordekhn (Haman and Mordechai) (1893), 81 pp.; Der afrikaner khosn oder kholem-noz, eyn interesanter roman (The African groom or childish speech, an interesting novel) (1893), 32 pp.; and A mayse fun a rov mit rebetsn oder a hun oyf a katshkene ey (A tale of a rabbi and his wife or a hen on a duck’s egg) (1895), 32 pp.; among others.  (A longer list of these works can be found in Zalmen Reyzen’s Leksikon.)  He also published novels and collections of stories with the publisher, Rozenkrants ve-shriftzetser, in Vilna, such as: Khashke di grafine, oder oys shvester, vayter kale, eyn hekht interestanter roman (Khashke the countess, or not a sister any longer, still a bride to be, a fascinating novel) (1889), 176 pp. (later reprinted several times); Eyn kdaye zakh khlebn, oder der tate nemt di mamen, a rikhtike mayse (A worthwhile item, upon my word, or Father attracted Mother, a proper story) (1913), 30 pp. [1894 original]; Der mekekh toes, oder vi men bet zikh oys azoy shloft men, a fayne ertseylung (The price of an error, or how one makes one’s bed, so one sleep, an excellent story) (1926), 31 pp. [1913 original]; Der glompisher president, oder eyn kind fun tsvey mames, an ekhte figure (The silly president, or one child with two mothers, an authentic figure) (1926), 32 pp. [1895 original, 1913 reprint]; Dos khanike likhtl, oder libe un flikht (The little Chanukah candle, or love and duty) (1896), 28 pp.; Yaytsa kur utshat, oder vos bashert dos bavert (Yaytsa kur utshat, or what’s destined is realized) (1891), 31 pp.; Motke flikh (Motke the dutiful) (1893); Der mamzer, oder got vart lang un batsolt gikh, a[n] emese geshikhte fun a falshe[r] libe (The bastard, or God waits long and pays quickly, a true story of a false love) (1893), 31 pp.
     Budzon wrote into the mid-1890s.  When he later settled in Vilna, he engaged in business for a while, later becoming a bookkeeper and no longer attended to the writing of stories.  In the mid-1920s, he wrote a monograph on the well-known Vilna philanthropic woman, Dvore-Ester Helfer (1817-1907), who had provided him with room-and-board one day each week while he was a yeshiva student.  It is unknown if this work was ever published.  Budzon died in Vilna, and Zalmen Reyzen eulogized him at the funeral.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1, pp. 230-32; Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (November 29, 1929); A. Vevyorke, Revizye (Revision) (Kharkov, 1931), pp. 86, 218-20; Shmuel Niger, “Shomer’s mishpet oyf sholem aleykhemen” (The Trial of Shomer in Sholem Aleykhem), Tsukunft (New York) (January 1947).

Tuesday 25 November 2014


     Born in Rogatshov (Rogachev), Byelorussia, and while still young he was a boy chorister who with cantors and traveled with actors.  He arrived in the United States in 1913, and studied music in the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore.  He wrote about Jewish music in: Tog (Day) and Forverts (Forward), and in the English-language press as well.  He wrote and published nearly thirty compositions, arranged music to go with poems of Yiddish poets.  He gave lectures on musical topics, taught singing in Jewish schools, and led several Yiddish choirs.  He was the author of a book of Yiddish and Hebrew songs with notation, entitled Doyres zingen, beshirat hadorot (The generations are singing) (New York, 1961), two printings, 296 pp.  He died in the Bronx.

[Addition information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 69.]


GEDALYE BUBLIK (GEDALIAH BUBLICK) (October 19, 1875-March 18, 1948)
Born in Grodno, Poland, he attended yeshivas in Lomzhe (Łomża) and Mir.  He first published in 1899 in Hashiloach (The shiloah).  In 1900 he left for Argentina, and he lived in Mozesville, where he was for three years a colonist and teacher.  In 1904 he settled in New York.  He was a contributor and later (1915) editor of Yidishes tageblat (Jewish daily news), and he was one of the initiators of the Jewish congress movement in the United States.  He was a cofounder of Mizrahi (orthodox Zionism) in the U.S.  He was active as a leader in the religious Zionist movement, and he was an important Yiddish publicist.  After the collapse of Yidishes tageblat (1928), he was a contributor to Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal).  Among his books: Mayn rayze in erts-yisroel (My trip in the Land of Israel) (New York, 1921), 379 pp.; Min hametsar, a shtudyum iber dos lebn fun der yidisher natsyon (From the depths, a study of the life of the Jewish nation) (New York, 1923), 442 pp.; Der sakhakl in amerikaner yidntum (An accounting of American Judaism) (New York, 1927), 155 pp.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1, pp. 228-29; Dr. A. Koralnik, Viderklangen un vidershprukhn (Echoes and contradictions) (Warsaw, 1928); A. Rubinshteyn, in Undzer veg 79 (Paris, 1948).


     Born in Bobryusk, he lived in Horodok.  He was the author of a booklet of songs, entitled Knaf renanim (Song-bird) (Vilna, 1872).  From his introduction to this work, we see that the songs were written in the years 1850-1854 and that he wrote other songs.

Sources: Z. Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater, vol. 1.


     He served as a rabbi in France, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Ogden, Utah, and South Ozone Park, New York.  He was the author of a religious text in Yiddish, with a parallel translation into English (by Simon Mowshowits): Ha-tsadik ve-derekh ha-tov / Der tsadek un der guter veg (The righteous man and the just path) (New York, 1939).  The Yiddish text ran 126 pp., the English text 102 pp.  When this volume appeared, he was rabbi in the Bronx, New York.  He died in New York.


YOEL BARKAN (b. July 4, 1894)
Son of Sholem and Perl Barkan, he was born in Sirotine (Rus. Sirotino; Bel. Sirotsina), Vitebsk region, Russia.  He attended a Talmud-Torah and the municipal school in Ekaterinoslav.  In 1907 he moved to the United States and settled in Philadelphia.  His first published work was a play entitled Di froy in ir heym (The woman in her home), staged by Dovid Kesler (David Kessler).  In 1920 he contributed to Yidishe velt (Jewish world) in Philadelphia.  He wrote a few other theatrical pieces which were performed in the Yiddish theater.  In 1921 he became the managing editor of the daily newspaper Pitsberger yidishe velt (Pittsburgh Jewish world), which was published for eighteen months.  In 1922 he became the owner, editor, and publisher of the weekly newspaper Der yidisher folks-fraynd (The Jewish people’s friend) in Pittsburgh, published since 1889; in 1924 he changed its name to Der vegvayzer (The guide); in 1938 he published under the name Der firer (The leader); and in 1939 and 1940 again as Der vegvayzer.  In Di yidishe velt and Vegvayzer, he published a number of original and translated novels, stories, humorous pieces, and articles under the pen names: Yoel Sholems, Bar-Koyen, and A. Vitebsker, among others.  He published Folks-lider (Folk songs), collected and arranged by “Y. B.” (Pittsburgh, 1931), 16 pp.

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1.

Monday 24 November 2014


KHAYIM BARKAN (H. BARKAN) (July 12, 1896-1966)
     Born in Ungen, Bessarabia, he attended religious elementary school, a junior yeshiva run by Mizrahi, and general subjects with a private tutor.  In 1920 he emigrated to the United States.  In 1922 he published “A monolog fun a besaraber yidn” (A monologue of a Bessarabian Jew) in Di yidishe velt (The Jewish world) in Philadelphia.  He later wrote skits and stories for: Frayhayt (Freedom), Forverts (Forward), Fraye arbeter shtime (Free voice of labor), Yidish (Yiddish), and Der hamer (The hammer) in New York; Folks-fraynd (Friend of the people) in Pittsburgh; Der shpigl (The mirror) in Buenos Aires.  His articles appeared in Kultur un dertsiung (Culture and education), and stories for children in Kinder-tsaytung (Children’s newspaper) and Kinder-zhurnal (Children’s magazine) in New York.  He also published translations from Hebrew and English.  Among his books: Fisher (Fisher), a novel (Philadelphia, 1928), 104 pp.; In shvere teg (In difficult times), stories (Warsaw, 1933), 171 pp.; Amol iz geven, mayses un legendes (It was in the past, tales and legends), for children (New York, 1942), 63 pp.; Undzer folk, a kurtse yidishe geshikhte far shul un heym (Our people, a short Jewish history for synagogue and home) (New York, 1945), 48 pp.; Mayn shtetl ungen, poeme (My town Ungen, a poem) (Philadelphia, 1959), 180 pp.; Af fremder erd (On alien terrain), a novel (Buenos Aires: Der shpigl, 1962), 171 pp.  He was a teacher in Workmen’s Circle schools and lived in Philadelphia.

Sources: Yankev Glatshteyn, in Yidisher kemfer (New York) (September 7, 1952); Y. Zilberberg, in Undzer folk (New York) (October 1945); Shmuel Niger, in Tog (New York) (August 1, 1934).

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 59.]


He was the director of the Kaminski Theater in Warsaw in the years 1922-1926.  He published in the first issue of the quarterly journal, Yidish teater (Yiddish theater) (March 1927), a statistical work entitled: “Repertuar, ansambl, publikum un kase in varshever kaminski-teater in di yorn 1922-1926” (Repertoire, ensemble, audience, and receipts in the Warsaw Kaminski Theater over the years 1922-1926).

Source: Literarishe bleter (March 25, 1927), p. 237.


     Born in Lovitsh (Łowicz), Poland, he attended religious elementary school and yeshivas.  Until the war began in 1939, he was living in Warsaw.  He was an active member of the Zionist groups, Et Livnot (A time to build) and Maccabi.  As the Nazis approached Warsaw, he escaped to Lemberg, was arrested there and sent to Siberia, and was released there in August 1941.  He settled in Central Asia and worked for a long period of time on a collective farm.  In 1945 he returned to Moscow, and during repatriation in 1946 to Poland.  In March 1950 he made aliya to the state of Israel.  In 1952 he was in Paris and from there went on to Brazil.  He was living in São Paulo.  He began writing for Moment (Moment) in 1921, as a reporter.  He contributed to Dos naye lebn (The new life), wrote correspondence pieces from Poland for Haarets in Tel Aviv, Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) in New York, Yidishe tsaytung (Jewish news) in Buenos Aires, and Afrikaner tsaytung (African newspaper) in Johannesburg, among others.  He edited Der nayer moment (The new moment) in São Paulo.  He published in Yidishe shriftn (Yiddish writings) (Warsaw, 1946-1949).  In 1967 he published a memoir entitled Varshe fun nekhtn (Warsaw of yesterday) (São Paulo), 231 pp. 
 Among his pseudonyms: Bar-Nash, Ben-Mortkhe, and Yitskhokl.

Sources: Yidisher gezelshaftlekher leksikon (Jewish societal handbook), vol. 1 (Warsaw, 1939), p. 805; Y. Yanosovitsh, in Arbeter-vort (Paris) (April 15, 1952).


Born in Odessa, he was a teacher at a Talmud-Torah (elementary school for poorer children).  He emigrated to the United States in the early 1880s with the first group of “Am olam.”  He took part in the socialist movement of tailors in New York.  He wrote about this in Yidishe folkstsaytung (Jewish people’s news) in New York, using the alias “Yisroel Ben Olam.”  He was a delegate of the Fareynikte yidishe geverkshaftn (United Hebrew Trades) to the first congress of the Second Socialist International in Paris in 1889.  He also took part in one of the first Yiddish theater performances in the United States, together with Boris Tomashevsky, in 1882.  He wrote the plays, such as Di vanzinige pogrom (The maniacal pogrom), among others.  He edited the serial Shnayder-farband (Tailors union).  He died in Pennsylvania about 1900.

Sources: Z, Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1; Geshikhte fun der yidisher arbeter bavegung in di fareynikte shtatn (History of the Jewish labor movement in the United States), vol. 2 (New York: YIVO), see index; Kalman Marmor, Der onhoyb fun der yidisher literatur in amerike (The beginning of Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1940), see index; Z. Zilbertsvayg, Teater-leksikon, vol. 1.



He was a poet. Precise biographical information is lacking for him. We only know that he was born in Byelorussia and lived in Minsk. He published in the newspapers Der yunger arbeter (The young worker) and Oktyabr (October), as well as in the journal Shtern (Star). His first poetry collection, entitled Tshelyuskin, a kinder-poeme (Tshelyuskin, a children’s poem) was published in Minsk in 1936 (77 pp.) when he was all of thirteen years of age. He later contributed to a series of literary anthologies. A year or two prior to the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union, he was called up to serve in the army and there, from June 1941, he took part in battles against the fascists. The majority of his poems, from the 1930s were permeated with unease and a sense of close by mass death. In one of them, he wrote: “It once happened, when I was contemplating that I would never again be returning home, I then had a hideous pain in my heart, and a dreadful sadness came over me.” Unfortunately, this feeling turned out to be no delusion. He died at the front in 1942.

His work was included in: 10 pyonerishe lider (Ten pioneering poems) (Minsk, 1934); Atake (Attack), an anthology of the Red Army’s national defense literature (Minsk, 1934); Lomir zingen (Let’s sing) (Moscow, 1940); and “Kh’vel aheym shoyn keynmol mer nit kumen” (I would never again be returning home), a poem cycle in the collection Lire (Lyre) (Moscow, 1985)

Sources: Der yunger arbeter (The younger worker) 94 (Minsk, 1930); S. Polonski, 10 pyonerishe lider (Ten pioneer songs), with musical notation (Minsk, 1934); review in Oktyaber 139 (Minsk, 1934); Atake, almanakh fun roytarmeyisher landshuts-literatur (Attack, almanac of the Red Army literature of land protection), ed. Z. Akselrod and D. Kurland) (Minsk, 1934); review in Oktyaber 263 (Minsk, 1934).

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 59; and Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 38-39.]


He came from Radom, Poland.  In his youth he acquired considerable Jewish learning as well as a general education.  For many years he worked as a teacher in Tsisho (Central Jewish School Organization) schools in Warsaw and Shedlets (Siedlce).  He taught Hebrew, Jewish history, and Yiddish language and literature.  Between the two world wars, he was active as a translator from European literature into Yiddish.  Among his translations: Hanns Heinz Ewers, Alraune (Y. Alroyne = Mandrake) (Warsaw, 1925), 494 pp.; Ewers, Der Zauberlehrling (Dem mekhashefs talmid = The Sorcerer’s Apprentice) (Warsaw, 1926), 238 pp.; Ewers, [Y.] Di yidn fun yeb (= The Jews from Yeb) (Warsaw, 1928), 72 pp.; Ewers, Vampyr (Y. Vampir = Vampire) (Warsaw, 1928), 2 vols., 261 pp. and 301 pp.; Professor Ernst Haeckel, Die Welträtsel (Y. Di velt-retenish, populere shtudyes iber monistisher filosofye = The riddle of the universe, popular studies of monistic philosophy) (Warsaw-New York, 1929), 352 pp.; Otto Weininger, Geschlecht und Charakter (Y. Geshlekht un kharakter = Sex and character) (Warsaw-New York, 1929), 352 pp.; Adam Szela̜gowski, Dzieje powszechne i cywilizacji (Y. Algemeyne geshikhte un geshikhte fun der tsivilizatsye = General history and history of civilization) (Warsaw, 1930), 351 pp.; Upton Sinclair, Letters to Judd, an American Workingman (Y. Briv tsu arbeter) (Warsaw-New York, 1930-1931); Ludwig Renn, Krieg (Y. Milkhome = War) (Warsaw, 1930-1931), 2 vols.; Theodore Dreiser, [Y.] Marksizm in teorye un praktik (Marxism in theory and practice) (Warsaw, 1931), 58 pp.; Dreiser, [Y.] Di froy in hayntikn rusland (Women in contemporary Russia) (Warsaw, 1931), 73 pp.; and Dr. Iwan Bloch, [Y.] Dos geshlekht-lebn fun undzer tsayt (Sex life in our time) (Warsaw, 1936); among others.  His subsequent career remains unknown.

Source: Lerer yizker-bukh (Teachers’ memory book) (New York, 1954).

Sunday 23 November 2014


M. BORNSHTEYN (BORENSTEIN) (d. February 25, 1958)
     He was a laborer in a steel factory.  He began in 1932 to publish in Morgn-frayhayt (Morning freedom), later in Hamer (Hammer) and Signal (Signal).  In 1933 he won first prize for a story in Morgn-frayhayt. He also wrote a book of stories entitled Tsvishn shtolene reder (Amid steel wheels) (New York, 1926), 220 pp.  He died in New York


Born in Kovel, Warsaw Province.  According to another source (Proletarisher gedank [Proletarian thought], New York, December 1, 1943), he came from Vlotslavek (Włocławek).  He attended a religious elementary school, the local municipal school, and was an auditor at the Polish Free Senior School in Warsaw.  He worked in Lodz as a buyer for an industrial firm.  He was secretary for Dr. Yitskhok Shapir, and he also worked in the Poale Tsiyon publisher of Arbeter-heym (Workers’ home).  He was secretary and later director of the “Joint” in Warsaw.  In 1919-1920, he was selected for the left Poale Tsiyon list as a councilman for Włocławek city council.  He published a series of works concerning the economics and statistics of Jews in Poland.  He was a regular contributor to Kwartalnik statystyczny (Quarterly statistics), put out by the top state office for statistics in Poland.  He contributed as well to: Zagadnienia gospodarcze (Economic issues), Przegląd Handlowy (Overseas sales), and Sprawy Narodowościowe (Nationalities affairs).  He was the author of Rzemiosło żydowskie w Polsce (Jewish craftsmen in Poland), published by the Committee on Research into the Economic Needs of the Jewish People in Poland (Warsaw, 1936), 189 pp.  In Yiddish he published in: Luekh fun yor tsu yor (Calendar from year to year) (“Yidishe kehile” [Jewish community]) (Vilna, 1929); Dos shutloze kind (The unprotected child) (“Statistik vegn der tsol yesoymim” [Statistics on the number of orphans]) (Warsaw, 1928); Virtshaft un lebn (Economy and life) (“Agrar-reform un di yidn” [Agrarian reform and the Jews] and “Yidish bekeray-vezn” [Jewish bakeries]) (Berlin, 1929); Kooperative bavegung (The cooperative movement) (“Metod fun analizirn virtshaftlekhe farheltenishn fun der yidisher bafelkerung” [A method of analyzing economic relations of the Jewish people] and “Hoypt-printsipn fun der virtshaftlekher organizatsye in der byuro-arbet” [Main principles of economic organization in bureau of labor]) (Warsaw, 1928-1929); Tog-yedies (Daily news) (“Tsu der frage fun demografishe forshungen un statistik fun der yidisher bafelkerung in poyln” [On the question of demographic research and statistics concerning the Jewish people in Poland]) (Warsaw, 1928); Yidisher gezelshaftlekher leksikon (Handbook for Jewish society), ed. Dr. R. Feldshuh (“Dos yidishe handverk in poyln” [Jewish handicraft in Poland]) (Warsaw, 1939).  He also contributed to Folks-hilf (People’s aid) and Virtshaftlekher lebn (Economic life).  His pamphlets include: Der matsev fun der yidisher landvirtshaft in mizrekh-galitsye (The state of Jewish agriculture in eastern Galicia), separately issued by Virtshaftlekher lebn and published by the economic-statistics bureau of the Central Cooperative Bureau in Poland (undated), 44 pp.  From 1931 he was director of the economic-statistics bureau of the Central Cooperative Bureau.  In July 1943, as a representative for the Joint in Warsaw, he was shot by the Nazis.

Sources: Records of Yekopo (Yevreyskiy komitet pomoshchi zhertvam voyny—“Jewish Relief Committee for War Victims”) (Vilna, 1931); Dr. R. Feldshuh (Ben-shem), ed., Yidisher gezelshaftlekher leksikon, vol. 1 (Warsaw, 1939); Mendl Mozes, in Poylisher yid (Polish Jew), yearbook (New York, 1944); obituary in Proletarisher gedank (New York) (December 1943).


YANKEV BORNSHTEYN (1900-October 1941)
He was born in Warsaw and attended the Hebrew high school Hertsliya in Tel Aviv, and thereafter he studied in Warsaw University.  He graduated with a law degree, but then devoted himself to journalism.  In 1926 he was one of the contributors to the daily Yiddish newspaper Varshever ekspres (Warsaw express), later renamed Unzer ekspres (Our express), for which he worked until the start of WWII in 1939.  He wrote current events articles, newspaper fiction, and daily news.  He led the legal division of his newspaper.  In the first days of the war, he escaped to Vilna.  The approach of the Germans brought him further into Russia, to Tashkent, where he suffered from hunger and need and where he died from tuberculosis in October 1941.

Source: Y. Sh. Goldshteyn, in Forverts (New York) (September 9, 1955).


AB. BORNSHTEYN (1871-1938)
Born in Zgierzh (Zgierz), near Lodz, into a Hassidic family, he studied in religious high schools, and he was also self-taught.  He married early and became a manufacturer.  He began to write in Hatsfira (The siren).  He wrote feature pieces and sketches for Hatsfira, Haynt (Today), Lodzher tageblat (Lodz daily news), and Nayer folksblat (New people’s news) in Lodz from 1910 until shortly before his death.  He also wrote under the pen names of Avner Shteyn, A. B., and Bar-nash, among others.

Sources: Kh. L. Fuks, “Dos yidishe literarishe lodzh” (Jewish literary Lodz), in Fun noentn over (From the recent past) III (New York, 1956).


MOYSHE BARNIK (1895-July 4, 1939)
     Born in Rozhnyatow, Eastern Galicia, into a merchant’s family.  He studied in religious elementary school and high school, and graduated from a rabbinical seminary in Vienna.  He was a teacher by profession and a leader of the Tarbut movement in Galicia.  He published in Haolam (The world), Hatsfira (The siren), Haboker (This morning), and Haarets (The land); and he published in Yiddish children’s songs and stories, as well as a pamphlet, entitled Undzer khinekh (Our education) (Lemberg, 1928), 20 pp.  He died in Tel Aviv.

Source: D. Tidhar, Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the founders and builders of Israel), vol. 5 (Tel Aviv, 1930-1931), p. 2115.



He was a doctor of law in Lemberg, Galicia.  From 1902 he was active in the Zionist movement, initially with Tse’ire Tsiyon (Zionist youth) and later with Poale Tsiyon.  Before WWI, he edited Der yidisher arbeter (The Jewish worker), organ of Poale Tsiyon in Austria.  He was murdered.


The pen name of the Zionist Socialist Party leader and writer, Avrom Vaynshteyn (Abraham Weinstein), also known as “Avrom Odeser” (Abraham from Odessa).  He was born in Vilna; his father was an employee in a business in the timber line of work.  He graduated from a painting middle school in Odessa.  In 1904 he was editor of the Zionist socialist organ, Di frayhayt (Freedom).  He took part in the party publications: Dos vort (The word), Undzer veg (Our way), and Nayer veg (New way).  He authored the brochure: Maksimum hoze un minimum ernstkeyt, a entfer oyf di broshur, di sotsialistishe praktsies in tsienizm (Maximum audacity and minimum seriousness, a reply to the brochure, Socialist Practices in Zionism) (Vilna, 1907), 150 pp.  The brochure to which he was responding was written by “A. H.” (G. Klevanski).  In the 1930s he was linked to “ORT” (Association for the Promotion of Skilled Trades) in Odessa.

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1 (“Vaynshteyn, avrom”).


MENAKHEM BOREYSHO (MENAHEM BORAISHO) (January 26, 1888-February 12, 1949)
     His earlier name was Menakhem Goldberg, and he was known until the 1920s by his literary name of “Menakhem,” at which point he assumed the surname Boreysho (Boraisho), his mother’s maiden name.
     He was born in Brisk (Brześć) in Lithuania, son of a Hebrew teacher, Noyekh Goldberg, who himself wrote in Hebrew and who encouraged his sons to do so (one of his sons, Avrom Goldberg, was the later editor of the Warsaw newspaper, Haynt [Today]).  Due to his sickliness in early childhood, Menakhem was unable to attend religious elementary school, but studied with his father.  Later he attended the Russian municipal school, and later still studied further as an external student.  Early on he demonstrated an interest in politics (at age sixteen he was a member of Poale-Tsiyon).  He also began early to write poetry in Russian and Yiddish.  In 1905 he arrived in Warsaw and showed Y. L. Perets his poems.  Perets befriended him and published several of his poems in Der veg (The way).  He chose for his maiden poem to publish, Kodesh (Holy) of 1907.  In the course of his first two years in Warsaw, his poems were published (all under the name “Menakhem”) in the anthologies: “Shvartse royzn” (Black roses) in Naye tsayt (New times); “Tfiles” (Prayers) in Literarishe monatshriftn (Literary monthly writings); “Shloyme” (Solomon) in Yidish (Yiddish); and in other publications.  In 1908 he became a regular contributor to Haynt and Dos yidishe vokhnblat (The Jewish weekly), for which he wrote articles about theater as well as feature pieces.  Between 1909 and 1911, he served in the Russian army, and he published his impressions of barracks life in Haynt and Fraynd (Friend).  In 1914 during the anti-Jewish boycott movement in Poland, he wrote his poem “Poyln” (Poland) (Warsaw, 21 pp.).  It afforded him the opportunity to express his bitter feelings against elitist, anti-Semitic Poland.  At the outbreak of WWI, he left for Switzerland, and from there he went to the United States.  In New York, he contributed for a certain period of time to Tog (Day), and later for the periodicals: Firer (Leader), Haynt, Fraye arbeter shtime (Free voice of labor), Tsayt (Time), and Literatur un lebn (Literature and life).  In 1916, together with Moyshe Leyb Halpern, he edited the anthology Ist brodvey (East Broadway).  During his initial years in the United States, he composed poetry and stories, as well as essays about theater (using the pseudonym “M. Grim”) and current events articles.  He also published his first poetry collection, entitled A ring in der keyt (A ring in the chain) (New York, 1916), 124 pp.  In 1915 he became secretary for the just founded “People’s Relief.”  Between 1917 and 1920, worked again for Tog and for a period of time he lived in Chicago, before returning to New York.  In 1919 he published a critical piece on the Russian writer, Aleksander kuprin (New York, 39 pp.), and in 1920 his poem Zamd (Sand) (New York, 206 pp.), a long lyrical-epic work which effectively announced a new turn in his literary works.  In the same year of 1920, he was the head of the Jewish press department in the “Joint Distribution Committee,” a post he retained until 1929.  In 1923 he published, under the name “M. Boreysho,” Zavl rimer (Zavl Rimer) (Warsaw, 224 pp.), a poetic chronicle in sixteen chapters, written in verse, with deeply lyrical parts that were well adapted to the narrative-poetic frame of the work.  With this book began a new phase in Boreysho’s creative writing, a period in which he freed himself bit by bit from his earlier, often flowing sentimentalism.
     In 1926 he undertook a trip to Poland and Soviet Russia.  That very year, the publishing house of B. Kletskin in Vilna brought out his work Der gilgl, dialog in tsvey bagegenishn (The transformation, a dialogue in two encounters), 145 pp.  When he returned from his trip, he published a travel narrative in Frayhayt (Freedom) in New York, where he was a regular contributor until 1929.  Due to the pro-Arab stance of the Communists [in the wake of the Arab riots against Jews in 1929 in Palestine], he, together with an entire group of writers, left this newspaper.  He became a contributor to Di vokh (The week)—first issue, October 1929; all in all, thirty-three issues—and later to Yidish (Yiddish), a weekly put out by the Yiddish Cultural Society (first issue, May 1932; published from 1932 to 1934).  In 1932 Kletskin Publishers brought out in Vilna his Der pastekh dovid, a shpil oyf a biblishn motiv in zeks bilder (David, the shepherd, a play with a biblical motif in six scenes), 149 pp.  That same year, he became a teacher in a Workmen’s Circle school in Boston.  In 1933 he received a regular position with the American Jewish Congress, a position he retained until 1947; he wrote editorials for the organization’s Congress Weekly.  Between 1933 and 1943, he worked on his longest and more important work, Der geyer, kapitlen fun a lebn (The peddler, chapters from a life), 2 vols. (New York, 1943), 512 pp.  Distinct parts of this work had been published earlier in Zamlbikher (Anthologies) (1936-1938) and in Tsukunft (Future) (1940-1942).  Der geyer was like a conclusion to a long, arduous path, rich in a thoughtful search and poetic self-analysis—a path that extended from “Tfiles” and “Poyln” through Zamd to the wanderings of the peddler (Der geyer), Noyekh Markan.  Concerning this work, critics wrote that it isn’t a book, but a religious text.  In 1940, the publishing house of CYCO (Central Yiddish Cultural Organization, Tsentrale yidishe kultur-organizatsye) brought out his report, Der kriziz in yidish (The crisis in Yiddish) (New York, 32 pp.); in 1946, the American Jewish Congress published his pamphlet in English, The Story of Yiddish (New York, 23 pp.); and in 1947, his work, A dor, opklayb fun lider un poems, 1907-1933 (A generation, a selection of songs and poems: 1907-1933) (New York, 307 pp.).  Included in the last of these was an autobiographical work, entitled “Mit dem dor” (With the generation), which covered the poet’s taxing and searching efforts to erase the “dividers between him and his generation” and to devise what is “amenable for a poet.”  In 1947 he again became a contributor to Tog which he continued to do until his final days.  In Tog he published many fundamental articles concerning Jewish life in the United States.  At this time, he had already strengthened his long-held position in Yiddish literature, that of the poet as a thinker, a “peddler,” and a searcher, replete with responsibility.  He was more than anything full of doubts, but also a man of deep beliefs in a higher realm, in a higher spiritual realm.  Appearing posthumously were: Eseyen (Essays) (Buenos Aires: Yidbukh, 1856), 243 pp.; and Der fremder un zavl rimer (The stranger, and Zavl the saddler) (Buenos Aires: Lifshits-fond, 1968), 315 pp.
     On February 12, 1949 Menakhem Boreysho died in New York at the age of sixty-one.  In 1950 the publisher Matones in New York brought out the last, though in part still unfinished, works by the poet in the volume entitled Durkh doyres (Through generations), 277 pp., together with a work by Leo Finkelshteyn, Menakhem boreyshos shafungs-veg (Menakhem Boreysho’s creative path).  The volume included Boreysho’s poems, Moyshe (Moses) and Kheshbm afn ash (An accounting for Asch).  Also of great interest were Menakhem boreyshos briv (The letters of Menakhem Boreysho) which Shmuel Niger published in Tsukunft (New York) (March 1954).  A collection of his essays was being prepared for publication.  [n.b. The last, entitled Eseyen (Essays), came out in 1956, published in Buenos Aires.]

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2 (1927), pp. 438-41; Shmuel Niger, in Algemeyner entsiklopedye (General encyclopedia), vol. 5 (1944); L. Finkelshteyn, “Boreysho-biblyografye” (Boreysho’s bibliography), in Durkh doyres, cited above; letters from Boreysho to Y. Tverski, in Di goldene keyt 4 (Tel Aviv) (1949); letter(s) to Y. Shatski, in Yivo-bleter 36 (1952), pp. 343-44; Ada Boreysho-Fogel, “Ikh dermon zikh” (I recall), Tsukunft (New York) (January 1955); letter(s) to G. Pomerants, in Tint un feder 3 (Toronto) (September 1949).
Yitskhok Kharlash
[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 59.]