DOVID FRISHMAN (DAVID FRISCHMAN) (December 18, 1860-August 4, 1922)
He was born in Zgerzh (Zgierz), near Lodz, Poland, into a wealthy Hassidic family. In 1862 he moved with his parents, Shoyel and Freyde-Beyle, to Lodz, where he would live until 1881. Lodz had a large impact on his life and work. His father, a major textile manufacturer, was reputed to be a follower of the Jewish Enlightenment. He was close to the local writers’ circle. Such writers as Tsvayfel, Gotlober, and others came to visit at their home. Dovid studied with the best teachers and tutors both Jewish subject matter (even Kabbala) as well as secular subjects and foreign languages. From his father he inherited his critical-analytical mind, and from his mother the idyllic-lyrical sensibility—as he would later write in his autobiography in 1892. He had at age nine already demonstrated the nature of a book-worm. At fourteen, he composed poems and stories in Hebrew and Yiddish, and he made his first Hebrew translation from German; like his familiar “Lodz Yiddish,” German was like his mother tongue. Among other items, he wrote the satirical poem “Der shtiler neyder” (The silent vow) in Yiddish and translated the first part of Dumas’s Count of Monte Cristo into Hebrew, but he debuted in print in literature with the short story “Hamore derekh” (The guide), signed “D. F.,” in Smolenskin’s Hashaḥar (The dawn) 9 (1878). With his full name, he would later publish the poem “Letovat haklal” (For the good of the collective) in Hashaḥar. In those years he also contributed to Deutscher Lodger Zeitung (German newspaper of Lodz). Due to the impoverishment of his family, he left Lodz and until 1883 lived in Berlin, where he met German Jewish writers, first and foremost Aharon Bernstein who influenced him to translate into Hebrew his [Bernstein’s] four-volume work Naturwissenschaftliche Volksbücher (Popular work on natural science), which appear as: Yediot hateva (Information on nature) (Warsaw, 1882-1885). Frishman also wrote at this time for the publication Junges Deutschland (Young Germany) and in Leopold von Sacher-Masoch’s Auf der Höhe (At the pinnacle) in Berlin. In 1883 he returned to Poland and settled in Warsaw, and from this point in time he began to concentrate on literary criticism. That year he published the pamphlet Tohu vabohu (Chaos) (Warsaw, 60 pp.). With persuasive clarity here, he came out against the excessively florid prose style, hollowness, and inefficiency of Hebrew literature, primarily against the group of Lilienblum, Yehalel (Yude-Leyb Levin), Smolenskin, Tsederboym, and the journal Hamelits (The advocate). The pamphlet, on the one hand, established him among the first fighters for new form and content in Hebrew literature, and, on the other hand, he suffered attacks by the writers he had himself assaulted. This pushed him to gloom and despair, but he went on writing articles, poetry, and stories, and published them in a variety of works, among them: Sokolov’s anthology Haasif (The harvest) (Warsaw) 1 and 2 (1885-1886)—among these writings, the first of his well-known “Otiyot porḥot” (Promises unfulfilled). In 1885 he was invited to come to Leipzig and join the editorial board of Hayom (Today), where almost daily he published editorials and the feuilleton series “Otiyot porḥot” (for a short time under the title “Bakol mikol, kol” [Lock, stock, and barrel]), the first of its sort in the Hebrew press. Without a doubt, they were a step in the progress of Hebrew literature and the press. Frishman also published there the profoundly critical essays “Mikhtavim al dvar hasifrut” (Letters on literature). During his St. Petersburg period, he became friends with Sholem-Aleichem. The latter also influence him to write in Yiddish. Sholem-Aleichem invited him to contribute to his Folks-biblyotek (People’s library), that he was conceiving at the time, and Frishman gladly accepted. Inasmuch as the publication initially appeared in print in 1888, in the interim Frishman went ahead and published his first Yiddish poem, “Afn bergl” (On a hillside), in Dr. Y. L. Kantor’s Dos yidishe folksblat (The Jewish people’s newspaper) of 1888, supplement 3 (in the same issue that Sh. Frug debuted in print in Yiddish, and the two men drew closer. He later published in supplement 26-28 his story “Haskores neshomes” (Custom of praying for the souls of deceased relatives on specific holidays), and this is generally accepted as the beginning of his literary activities in Yiddish. In Sholem-Aleichem’s Yidishe folks-biblyotek (Kiev) 1 (1888), he published the Yiddish version of the poem “Ofir” (Ophir), which he had written earlier in Hebrew but had been left in manuscript. The poem, in blank verse and a searching language, caused a huge stir and inscribed a date in the history of early Yiddish poetry. Also, because “Ofir” appeared in the same collection as Y. L. Perets’s “Monish,” perhaps unwittingly people compare both first Yiddish poems as the debuts of two fames Hebrew writers. There were some who considered “Monish” as a great poetic achievement. Others and Sholem-Aleichem himself praised Frishman’s “Ofir” more, and it was at this time that the dispute between Frishman and Perets began. Although Frishman had disdain for Yiddish, at this time (1889) he still wrote 130 poems in Yiddish, as he expressed it: “Lyrical poetry, on motifs of love, nature, and longing, which none of the zhargon [= Yiddish] writers from Elye Bokhur to Eliakum Tsunzer (Zunser) have written very well”; and “they are the best of all that I have written.” He asked also to find someone in Kiev to publish these poems. (Frishman’s Yiddish poems were never published in book form, although in 1914, at the time of a celebration for him when a portion of his Yiddish writings were being published, he did prepare such a volume for publication. And, perhaps the manuscript was lost during the war in 1914, when Frishman was evacuated to Odessa and later to St. Petersburg?) A number of his poems were published in Dos yidishe folksblat in St. Petersburg (1889) and in Spektor’s Hoyzfraynd (House friend) (Warsaw) 2 (1889). Aside from poems and stories, he also published reviews (“Fun mayn sforim-tishl” [From my desk with religious texts]) of Mendele, Sholem-Aleichem, Spektor, and Sh. Bekerman—these constitute his first works of literary criticism in Yiddish. In 1890 he again left the country, and until 1895 studied history, national economies, and art history at Breslau University. He then returned to Poland and settled in Warsaw. He translated into Hebrew for the publisher Aḥiasaf scholarly and fictional writings, as well as children’s literature, among them: George Eliot’s Daniel Deronda, Schumacher’s Berenice, and Lippert’s Kulturgeschichte der Menschheit in ihrem organischen Aufbau (Cultural history of humanity in its organic structure). He also published a volume of his new Mikhtavim al dvar hasifrut. In this same period, he contributed to the Lukhes (Calendars) put out by Aḥiasaf, Hashiloaḥ (The shiloah), and Hoyz-fraynd 5 and 6. He renewed his attack on Perets and his radical socialist Yontef bletlekh (Holiday sheets) and published two sharp pamphlets: Lokshn (Noodles) and A floy fun tishe bov (A flea on Tisha b’Av), a dark, jumping, living, biting leaflet (Warsaw, 1894), 16 pp. and 30 pp., respectively (using the pen name Avrom Goldberg). Over the years 1889-1901, he lived in Lodz. He worked as an agent for an insurance company. In those years he published in Naye lodzer tsaytung (New Lodz newspaper). Later, back in Warsaw, he served as editor of the weekly Hadoar (The mail), which was the best edited Hebrew journal of its time. In 1904 he was again editing Hadoar, but the journal did not last very long. Frishman then turned his full attention once again to translations of European literature: Andersen, Spielhagen, Pushkin, Byron, Goethe, and others. In between, he edited for a time the weekly Hazman (The times) in St. Petersburg, Hazman in Vilna, and later the anthologies Sifrut (Literature) and Reshafim (Sparks) (1901-1911). Among other items, he published in these volumes his translation of Nietzsche’s Thus Spake Zarathrustra (as Ko amar saratustra). From 1902 he became a frequent contributor to the awakening Yiddish press and periodicals. He wrote poetry, stories, and feature pieces for: Der yud (The Jew) in Warsaw-Cracow (among other items, the play Far meshiekhn [For the Messiah]), the daily newspaper Der fraynd (The friend) in St. Petersburg, the collection Hilf (Help) in Kiev (his poem “Daniel in leybngrub” [Daniel in the lion’s den], written after the Kishinev pogrom), the daily newspaper Der veg (The way) in Warsaw, Di tsayt (The times) and the Bundist daily Folkstsaytung (People’s newspaper) in Vilna, Shmuel-Yankev Yatskan’s Dos idishe vokhenblat (The Jewish weekly newspaper)—in 1907; Di naye tsayt (The new times), the first collection of young writers (Warsaw, 1907) of which he was also co-editor; Der land-shadkhn (The regional matchmaker) and Di yunge velt (The young world)—in 1908; and Der shtrahl (The beam [of light]) of 1910; among others. With the founding of Haynt (Today) on January 22, 1908, Frishman became and remained a contributor to this newspaper until his death. He introduced herein for the first time in the Yiddish press the political and social feuilleton, initially in the form of flyers and later every Friday, as a polished essay; the series “Unzere literaturn” (Our literatures), which at the time aroused bitterness in Yiddishist circles and his polemical attacks in connection with the action pursued by Perets, together with other Yiddish writers and community leaders, for a modern Yiddish theater. Opposed to him were, among others: H. D. Nomberg and A. Litvak. Following Perets’s death, Frishman wrote of him in an altogether different tone, although he did not renounce all the complaints he bore toward Perets. In 1911 and 1912, he traveled on an excursion for Haynt to the land of Israel, and he published concerning it a series of articles in: Haynt, Hatsfira (The siren), and Di tsayt in London. In late 1914, during the war, he moved to Odessa and published feuilletons in Unzer lebn (Our life); he was later a contributor to Petrograder togblat (Petrograd daily newspaper), the anthology Untervegs (Pathways) in Kiev, and other Yiddish and Hebrew publications in the Russian empire. After the 1917 Revolution, he made his way to Moscow and there edited the first three volumes of the anthology Hatekufa (The epoch); later, in Warsaw he edited the subsequent six volumes. In addition to stories, poems, and articles, he published in them a great number of his own translations, such as: Homer’s Iliad, Goethe’s Prometheus, Tagore’s The Gardener, Heine’s Die Nordsee (The North Sea), Anatole France’s Thaïs, and Byron’s Manfred and Heaven and Earth. In early1919 he returned to Poland and lived there until the middle of 1920, after which he settled in Berlin. He continued contributing work to Haynt in Warsaw, and to Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) in New York, and in addition to feuilletons he also published his biblical stories from the series “Midbar” (Wilderness)—it is clear from these just how original a storyteller he was. Throughout his life he strove and here in distant biblical antiquity, with its passion and wild heroism, he was able to give voice to one of his strongest works. He had the capacity and purpose to become one of the most original Yiddish writers, and he did become a stylist in Hebrew, working intensely and wholeheartedly with the goal of publishing his entire corpus in forty volumes. He became ill with cancer, suffered terribly for a lengthy period of time, and did not live even to see the beginning of his dream. He died in Berlin. Bialik and Bergelson gave speeches at his funeral.
Frishman’s Yiddish poems are included in various anthologies and readers, among others: Frayhayt (Freedom), a publication of the Bund (1907); L. Yofe’s Lider farn folk (Poetry for the people) (Odessa, 1908); Y. Fikhman’s Di yudishe muze (The Jewish muse) (Warsaw, 1911); Dovid Kasel’s Antologye (Anthology) (Warsaw, 1913); the Soviet Mut (Courage) (Moscow, 1920) and Lebedik bagrobn (Buried alive) (Kharkov, 1935); Yoyel Entin’s Yidishe poetn, hantbukh fun yidisher dikhtung (Yiddish poets, a handbook of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1927); H. D. Hurvitsh, Yidishe literatur (Yiddish literature) (Moscow, 1928); M. Basin, Antologye, 500 yor yidishe poezye (Anthology, 500 years of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1917); and Revolutsyonerer deklamator, zamlung fun lider, poemes, dertseylungen, eynakters, tsum farleyenen, shipln un zingen bay arbeter-farveylung (Revolutionary declamation, collection of songs, poems, stories, [and] one-act plays to read aloud, enact, and sing for workers’ entertainment) (New York, 1933). His Hebrew-language poetry and stories appeared in virtually every Hebrew anthology and textbook. A large number of his novellas and poems have been translated into Polish, Russian, German, and other languages. Frishman also wrote under such pen names as: A. B. G. D., Ipslun, D. F., D. F. M., David, Dan, Yekhiel Ber, Efrati, Heine Hakatan, Meshorer Haluaḥ, D. Shoyelzohn, Mivaker, and Biblyograf. He used these pseudonyms primarily in Hebrew publications: Haasif, Ben-ami (Son of my people), Haboker (This morning), Haboker or (The morning light), Peraḥim (Flowers), Hador (The generation), Hazman, Hayom, Kneset (Gathering), Luaḥ aḥiasaf, Hatsfira, Hamagid (The preacher), Hamagid leyisrael (The preacher to Israel), Moledet (Homeland), Miklat (Refuge), Sifrut, Netivot (Pathways), Reshafim, Ivri anokhi (I am a Jew), Haolam (The world), Haatid (The future), Hashaḥar, Hashiloaḥ, Hatekufa, and Talpiyot (Fortresses).
As Zalmen Reyzen noted: “Frishman left behind deeply innovative footprints in modern Hebrew literature, as one of its stunning contributors to all literary fields and journals—from quiet lyrical poems, short novellas and stories, essays and the art of translation. Entirely separate from this, he created a distinctive standing in literary criticism, in which he made his life’s task the battle against florid prose, inefficiency, and tastelessness in Hebrew literature and the press in his time. Throughout his life, he executed the oath that he offered in his historical pamphlet Tohu vabohu: ‘This shall not be! I swear by my life that, if I should compel you with violence to turn away from good taste, from charm and from good sense, the distinctiveness that you possess, and inculcate in you good taste; no special taste or distinctive emphasis, only the taste and emphasis which thrives in all Western countries.’ He learned to seek out beauty and feeling everywhere, in every literary direction, to regard a work of art mostly for itself, not as a problem. All of his criticism was one lengthy accusatory act against Hebrew literature (and Yiddish literature as well), whose love for pure art made him its severest judge. Even when our prose and poetry had become so rich, he never stopped demanding great, monumental work…. In Hebrew he was one of the most beautiful and magnificent stylists, with an extraordinarily striking and elastic language, full of charm and grace, while in Yiddish Frishman evinced a carelessness in style and never rid himself of Germanisms…. He was by his very nature, however, a Hebrew writer, in a certain sense even a Hebraist…. His significance to Yiddish literature is no smaller [than to Hebrew literature]…. His poems brought to Yiddish poetry new gentle tones, a smooth form, European motifs and rhythms…. And finally we need also to point out that even Frishman as a Hebrew author had an indirect impact on Yiddish literature at the time, when it was still not so autonomous and independent of Hebrew [literature], as it has since become in our modern literary epoch.”
“In Frishman’s writing,” Shmuel Niger has written, “there is a patterned architecture, of a mathematical sentence…. The most steadfast and surest of his edifices are his essays and feuilletons. In them he provides no foreign lives, as in his stories, but his own life, his own world, which he can admirably control; for them he has enough emotional power and expressiveness (for pure lyricism is his psychic life, often too consciously, too intellectual); in them, the essays and feuilletons, he reached the highest level of his authorial art…. There were no comparable figures in either Hebrew or Yiddish literature. He analyzed, apportioned, and made clear details and ideas, feelings or images, which lived within him, that ultimately one gets not get a batch of more or less interesting, characteristic details, but an entire thing, an organism; the harmonious and the synthetic merge in his writing…. As with every sincere fighter, there was something childish about him, something naïve, but even more apparent in him was his passion…. The almost tenderly lyrical, the almost visionary fragments of his prose poems, was the everlasting attraction of his creative work. They were the first offspring of his young Hebrew lyricism, its first portent.”
In book form in Yiddish: his first Yiddish collection was Kleynikeyt (Trifles) (Tarnów: A. Rushinovski, 1894), 32 pp., including the stories “Masei” (Journeys [title of a Torah portion]) and “Um yonkiper” (On Yom Kippur), among other pieces, translated from Hebrew with a preface by Frishman which was characteristic of his Enlightenment approach to Yiddish at the time—“One does not pour out impure water before one has the pure—as long as the common people are incapable of an education and of knowing how to acquire a European language, for that long we shall be obliged to provide the same things in the zhargon language”; Dray hobn gegesn um yonkiper, ertsehlung (Three ate on Yom Kippur, a story) (Warsaw, 1905), 14 pp.; his collected writings (Ale verk) began appearing in 1909 with Ertsehlungen (Stories), 2 vols. (Lodz, 1909), later 3 more vols. (Warsaw-New York, 1911-1914) [see below]—vol. 1, 189 pp., including “Dos kleyne malekhl” (The little angel), “Kidesh-levone” (Blessing the new moon), “Nor eyn shabes” (Just one Sabbath), “Tiskhadesh” (Wear it in good health), “Likht” (Light), “Der golem” (The golem), “Af a zumer-voynung” (At a summer residence), “Bay a seyfer toyre” (With a Torah scroll), “Der kinstler” (The artist), “Ven di toyte voltn kenen reden” (If the dead could speak), “Reb meyer bal nes pushke” (Synagogue charity box), “Vi ikh hob zikh aleyn a pogrom gemakht” (How I made a pogrom all by myself), “Gegesen” (Eaten), “Matses” (Unleavened bread), “Vegen eyn eyntsig pintele” (Concerning one particular point), and “Er iz nifter gevorn” (He has died); vol. 2, 231 pp., including “Tsu kolnidre” (At “Kol Nidre” [prayer beginning Yom Kippur]), “Mates un masei” (Tribes and Journeys [titles of two Torah portions]), “Koperniks gegner” (Copernicus’s opponent), “Der tants” (The dance), “Tikn leyl shvues” (all-night study session on the eve of Shavuot), “Der koyen” (The Kohen), “Hare es” (It’s you), “Haskores neshomes,” “Ekhen in varshe” (A snake in Warsaw), “Sinay” (Sinai), and “Dos letste mol” (The last time); vol. 3, Yidish teater un yidishe literatur (Yiddish theater and Yiddish literature) (Warsaw: Tsentral, 1914), 201 pp.; vol. 4, Shotenbilder (Silhouettes) (Warsaw: Tsentral, 1914), 173 pp., including articles on Shloyme Rubin, Sholem-Yankev Abramovitsh [Mendele], M. L. Lilienblum, Yehalel, Dr. Y. L. Kantor, Ben-Yehuda, Elkhonen Leyb Levinski, Dovid Ginzburg, Theodor Herzl, David Wolfsohn, Em. Mandelshtam, Menashe Margoles, Tolstoy, Suvarin, Fanny Vadi-Epshteyn, and Madame Lobel; vol. 5, Felyetonen (Feuilletons) (Warsaw: Tsentral, 1914), 240 pp., including travel anecdotes from the land of Israel, Egypt, Monte Carlo, and elsewhere. After Frishman’s death, two further volumes of his feuilletons appeared in print: (1) Vort un bild (Word and image) (Warsaw, 1927), 152 pp; and (2) Milkhome un sholem (War and peace) (Warsaw, 1927), 188 pp. His Yiddish poetry, a great number of his articles, feuilletons, pamphlets, and the series of his biblical tale “In der midber” (In the wilderness) have not been [collected and] published in book form. His wife Lili published Ale verk fun dovid frishman (Collected works of Dovid Frishman) in six volumes (Warsaw, 1929): (1) Geshtaltn (Images); (2) Ertsehlungen; (3) Ertsehlungen; (4) Ertsehlungen; (5) Teater un literatur (Theater and literature); (6) Tsayt-motivn (Topics of the time)—second edition (Warsaw, 1938), third edition (Warsaw, 1939), fourth edition (Mexico City, 1949).
His books in Hebrew: Ketuvim nivḥarim (Selected writings) in four volumes (Warsaw, 1899-1905); the first full jubilee edition, Kol kitve david frishman (Collected writings of David Frishman) in eight volumes (Warsaw, 1910-1912); Kol kitve David frishman umivḥar targumav (Collected writings of David Frishman and selected translations) in seventeen volumes (Warsaw: Merkaz, 1914). The last of these includes Sefer habikoret (Volume of criticism) with a biography of Frishman, written by F. Lakhover, and articles on his work by: Dr. Y. L. Kantor, M. Y. Berdichevski, Y. Fikhman, Ben-Eliezer, A. Shteynman, and Y. Beyzits. After his death, two further volumes: (1) Shiva miḥtavim ḥadashim al dvar hasifrut (Seven new letters on literature) (Berlin, 1923), 205 pp.; and (2) Bamidbar (In the wilderness) (Berlin, 1923), 239 pp. Subsequent volumes published by his wife: Kol kitve (Collected writings), poetry (Warsaw, 1925), 327 pp.; Igrot (Letters) (Warsaw, 1927), 179 pp.; Kol kitve david frishman in eight volumes (Warsaw, 1929); Sipurim veshirim (Stories and poems) (New York, 1938); Bamidbar (Tel Aviv, 1940); Mivḥar ketuvim (Selected writings) (Tel Aviv, 1947); and the newest edition of Kol kitve in eight volumes (Tel Aviv: M. Nyuman, 1954-1966). Among these collections, however, is not to be found: his book Baarets (On the land), essays and impressions from his voyage to Israel (Warsaw, 1911), 53 pp.; Igron shalem (The complete letter-writer), a letter-writing manual in Hebrew, Russian, Polish, and Judeo-German in which is included a short course in simple bookkeeping, with Avraham Yaakov Paperna and Mrs. Hes (Warsaw, 1911), 132 pp.; Hatḥalat ḥumash (The beginning of the Pentateuch), in language written for children (Warsaw, 1911), 155 pp. Hillel Tsaytlin published a series of articles entitled “Moyshe rebeynu un zayn redaktor dovid frishman” (Moses and his editor, Dovid Frishman) in Moment (Moment) (Warsaw, 1911-1912), an attack on Frishman due to this last volume; Frishman answered him to the effect that the following sentence was missing: “Only for children who do not have tools to study Torah by chance” (Haynt) in 1912.
Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3 (with a thorough bibliography in Hebrew and Yiddish until 1928); Frishmans yubileum-bukh, tsu zayn fuftsig-yohrigen geburts-tog (Frishman’s jubilee volume, on his fiftieth birthday) (Warsaw, 1914), 215 pp.; Shmuel Niger, Lezer, dikhter, kritiker (Reader, poet, critic), vol. 2 (New York, 1928), pp. 406, 559-93; Niger, Kritik un kritiker (Criticism and critic) (Buenos Aires: Argentinian division of the World Jewish Culture Congress, 1959), pp. 346-60; Dr. Y. Shatski, in Pinkes (Records) (New York, 1928), pp. 385-86; Dr. A. Koralnik, Dos bukh fun vortslen (The book of roots) (Warsaw, 1928), pp. 73-78; Koralnik, Babayit uvaḥuts, deyoḳane maḥashavot veishim beyisrael uvaamim (At home and abroad, portraits of ideas and personalities in Israel and its people) (Tel Aviv, 1964), pp. 187-94; A. Gurshteyn, in Tsaytshrift (Minsk) 2-3 (1928); Avrom Goldberg, in Haynt yoyvl-bukh (Jubilee volume for Haynt) (Warsaw, 1928), pp. 19-20; Avrom Reyzen, Epizodn fun mayn lebn (Episodes from my life), vol. 2 (Vilna, 1928), pp. 61-62, vol. 3 (Vilna, 1935), pp. 288-91; H. D. Nomberg, Mentshn un verk (People and their writings) (Warsaw, 1930), pp. 163-67; Nakhmen Mayzil, Perets, lebn un shafn (Perets, life and work), vol. 1 (Vilna, 1931), pp. 205-30; Mayzil, Yitskhok-leybush perets un zayn dor shrayber (Yitskhok-Leybush Perets and his generation of writers) (New York, 1951), pp. 289ff; Mayzil, Tsurikblikn un perspektivn (Retrospectives and perspectives) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1962), see index; Zalman Shneur, in Forverts (New York) (June 24-July 1, 1932); Shneur, Ḥ. n. byalik uvene doro (Ḥ. N. Bialik and his generation) (Tel Aviv: Devir, 1952/1953); Shneur, in Hadoar (New York) (June 5-July 19, 1953); Shneur, David frishman veaḥerim (David Frishman and those after him) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 379ff; Ruvn Brainin, in Tog (New York) (August 27, 1932); M. Ribalov, in Hadoar (August 27, 1932); Nosn Grinblat, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) 38 (1932); Sefer natan goren (Volume for Natan Goren) (Tel Aviv, 1958), pp. 153ff; R. Fridkin, in Yidishe bilder (Riga) 9 (1937); Jack Lev, in Unzer ekspres (Warsaw) (August 30, 1937); F. Laḥover, Rishonim veaḥaronim (The earlier and the later ones) (Tel Aviv, 1958), see index; M. Kitay, Unzere shrayber un kinstler (Our writers and artists) (Warsaw: Jewish Universal Library, 1938), see index; Shmuel Leshtshinski, Literarishe eseyen (Literary essays) (New York: Gershuni, 1938), pp. 53-58; Hillel Tsaytlin, in Tsukunft (New York) (August 1938); M. Y. Freyd, Yamim veshanim, zikhronot vetsiyurim mitekufa shel ḥamishim shana (Days and years, memoirs and paintings from a period of fifty years), vol. 2 (Tel Aviv, 1938/1939), pp. 194-204; Y. Y. Sigal, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (May 15, 1944); Moyshe Shtarkman, in Poylisher yid (Polish Jew), annual (191944); E. R. Malachi, in Hadoar (August 1, 1947) on Frishman’s last will; A. Shteynman, in Hadoar (1947); Shteynman, in Heymish (Tel Aviv) (December 1960); Shteynman, in Davar (Tel Aviv) (May 4, 1962; September 7, 1962); Shteynman, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (March 29, 1963); Froym Kaganovski, Yidishe shrayber in der heym (Yiddish writers at home) (Lodz, 1949), pp. 67-71; Dr. A. Mukdoni, Yitskhok leybush perets un dos yidishe teater (Yitskhok Leybush Perets and Yiddish theater) (New York, 1949), see index; Nokhum Sokolov, Perzenlekhkeytn (Personalities) (Buenos Aires: Central Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1948), pp. 65-68ff; Y. Likhtenboym, Sofrenu, mimapu ad byalik (Our literature, from Mapu till Bialik) (Jerusalem, 1950), see index; Likhtnboym, Hasipur haivri (The Hebrew story) (Tel Aviv, 1955), see index; Aharon Ben-Or, Toldot hasifrut haivrit haḥadasha (History of modern Hebrew literature), vol. 2 (Tel Aviv, 1951), pp. 83-104; Yankev Botoshanski, in Di naye tsayt (Buenos Aires) 190 (1952); A. Kariv, in Molad (Tel Aviv) 68-69 (1951/1953); Yankev Fikhman, Regnboygn (Rainbow) (Buenos Aires, 1953), pp. 262-67; Dov Sadan, Kearat egozim o elef bediha ubediha, asufat humor be-yisrael (A bowl of nuts or one thousand and one jokes, an anthology of humor in Israel) (Tel Aviv, 1953), see index; Yoyel Mastboym, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (December 25, 1953); Ben-Tsien Kats, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (June 27, 1954; July 7, 1954; August 8, 1954); Kats, Zikhronot (Memoirs) (Tel Aviv, 1962/1963), pp. 118-26, 280; Shelomo Shreberk, Zikhronot hamotsi laor shelomo shreberk (Memoirs of a publisher, Shelomo Shreberk) (Tel Aviv: Sh. Shreberk, 1954), pp. 136-37; Moyshe Grosman, in Fun noentn over (New York) 2 (1956), pp. 13, 42, 48; Khayim Leyb Fuks, in Fun noentn over 3 (1957), see index; Avraham Shaanan, Milon hasifrut haḥadasha haivrit vehakelalit (Dictionary of modern Hebrew and general literature) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 644-48; Kalmen Marmor, Mayn lebns-geshikhte (My life history), vol. 1 (New York: IKUF, 1959), pp. 318-19; Kitve r’ benyamin (The writings of Rabi Benyamin) (Jerusalem, 1959/1960), see index; Arn Tsaytlin, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (February 19, 1960; December 21, 1962; December 17, 1965); Y. Ḥ. Ravnitski, Dor vesofrav (The generation and its writers) (Tel Aviv, 1960/1961); Sh. Pnueli, Sifrut kefshuta (Tel Aviv, 1963), pp. 252-344; Y. Emyot, In mitele yorn, eseyen, dertseylungen, lider (In middle age, essays, stories, poems) (Rochester: Jewish Community Council, 1963), pp. 169-62.
Khayim Leyb Fuks
 See Shimen Dubnov, in Voskhod (Sunrise) VII (1889).
 See his letter to Y. Y. Vaysberg of August 7, 1889.
 See A. Mukdoni, Yitskhok leybush perets un dos yidishe teater (Yitskhok Leybush Perets and Yiddish theater) (New York, 1949).
 See the anthology Kneset (Assembly) (Warsaw, 1917); reprinted in Heftn far literatur (Literary notebooks) (Lodz, 1919).
 See Dr. A. Koralnik, Dos bukh fun vortslen (The book of roots) (Warsaw, 1928), pp. 73-78.
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