JULIUS RAK (b. April 10, 1878)
The author of stories, he was born in Pukhovitsh (Pukhavichy), Byelorussia. His real name was Yude-Khayim Lipman. In 1894 he emigrated to the United States. From 1904 he published stories in Tsayt-gayst (Spirit of the times), Forverts (Forward), and elsewhere. He wrote his first stories under the name Y. Lipman. For social and family reasons, he has no sense of hope for the development of his literary talent.
Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 4; Benyomen Grobard, A fertlyorhundert, esey vegn der yidisher literatur in amerike (A quarter century, essay on Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1935); Yeshurin archive, YIVO (New York).