Wednesday, 24 May 2017


YITSKHOK LEVIN (ISAAC, IZAK LEWIN) (January 14, 1906-August 24, 1995)
            He was born in Wieliczka, near Cracow, western Galicia (Poland), the son of the Reyshe (Rzeszów) rabbi, R. Arn Levin, and the grandson of the Lemberg rabbi, R. Yitskhok Shmelkis.  He studied Jewish subjects with his father and with the Nayshtat rabbi, and later he received ordination into the rabbinate from the Krasin rabbi.  He received his secular education in a Polish state high school in Sambor (Sambir).  He studied philosophy, history, and law in the Universities of Lemberg, Vienna, and Vilna.  In 1932 he graduated from the philosophy department in Vienna and in 1937 received his law degree from the University of Vilna for his dissertation on the history of the legal profession in premodern Poland.  From his student years forward, he was an active leader in Jewish community life, primarily in Agudat Yisrael, and was a member of its central world council.  In 1936 he settled in Lodz where he served as a member of the city council (1937 and 1939), representing Orthodoxy.  At the beginning of WWII, he was in Warsaw on a community assignment and, not knowing if he could return to Lodz, headed for Vilna, where until late 1940 he remained active in the relief work for the refugees from Poland.  In March 1941 he made his way to the United States via Russia and Japan.  He was the founder and leader of the Research Institute for Religious Matters in New York.  From 1944 he was professor of Jewish history at Yeshiva University in New York, and from 1948 principal of the central yeshiva high school for girls in Brooklyn.  As one of the main leaders of Vaad Hatsala (The Rescue Committee), he visited (1945-1946) displaced persons’ camps in Germany and Austria, as well as in Eastern Europe.  He was in Israel on several occasions.  From 1948 he was the Agudat Yisrael representative and councilor on the economic and social council at the Union Nations.  He was an active leader with the Joint Distribution Committee, at the Claims Conference (a member of the executive), and with other institutions of American Judaism.  He began writing in 1922, publishing journalistic essays in the Polish-language Chwila (Moment) in Lemberg and Nowy dziennik (New daily) in Cracow, as well as in the Yiddish-language Togblat (Daily newspaper) and Der morgen (The morning) in Lemberg.  He went on to contribute articles, travel narratives, and scholarly treatments to: Nayer folksblat (New people’s newspaper), Beys yankev zhurnal (Beys Yankev journal), and Miesięcznik żydowski (Jewish monthly)—in Lodz; Dos yudishe togblat (The Jewish daily newspaper), Ortodoksishe yugend-bleter (Pages of Orthodox youth), Darkhenu (Our path), Deglanu (Our banner), Echo żydowskie (Jewish echo), Promień (Ray), Nowe życie (New Life), and Yidn in bafraytn poyln (Jews in liberated Poland)—in Warsaw; Pamiętnik Historyczno-Prawny (Hisorical-legal notebook) in Lemberg; and Monatschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums (Monthly journal of history and Scholarship on Judaism) in Breslau; among others.  After WWII he contributed work to: Tog (Day), Tsukunft (Future), Der amerikaner (The American), Di idishe shtime (The Jewish voice), Poylisher yid (Polish Jew), Hapardes (The orchard), Nasha tribuna (Our tribune), and Peysekh almanakh (tshkh”a) (Passover almanac for 1960/1961)—in New York; Di vokhentsaytung (The weekly newspaper) in London; Landsberger lager-tsaytung (Landsberg Camp newspaper); and various publications of Agudat Yisrael in the camps.  He ran a column entitled “Fun vokh tsu vokh” (From week to week) in Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) in New York.  In book form: Rozwód wiedeński, dzieje sporu o ważność rozwodu warunkowego wedle prawa żydowskiego w Polsce w XVII wieku (Viennese divorce, the history of the dispute concerning the validity of conditional divorce according to Jewish law in Poland in the seventeenth century) (Lemberg, 1931), 47 pp.; Udział Żydów w wyborach sejmowych w dawnej Polsce (Jewish participation in parliamentary elections in former Poland) (Warsaw, 1932), 20 pp.; Kla̜twa żydowska na Litwie w XVII i XVIII wieku (Jewish clergy in Lithuania in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) (Lemberg, 1932), 150 pp.; Prawo rozwiązywania ciał ustawodawczych, studjum z prawa konstytucyjnego (Law of dissolving legislative bodies, a study of constitutional law) (Lemberg, 1933), 87 pp.; Przyczynki do dziejow i historii literatury Zydow w Polsce, Beitrage zur Geschichte und Literatur der Juden in Polen (Contribution to the history and literature of the Jews in Poland) (Lemberg, 1935), 87 pp.; Palestra w dawnej Polsce (The legal profession in former Poland) (Lemberg, 1936), 124 pp., his doctoral dissertation; Fun amol un haynt, gezamlte maymorim (From then and now, collected essays), historical essays, holiday features, travel impressions, and speeches before the Lodz city council (Lodz, 1939), 170 pp.; The Protection of Jewish Religious Rights by Royal Edicts in Ancient Poland (New York, 1943), 23 pp.; Religious Freedom: The Right to Practice Shehitah, Kosher Slaughtering (New Yor, 1946), 290 pp.; Nokhn khurbn, gezamlte maymorim (After the Holocaust, collected essays), articles and U. N. speeches (New York, 1950), 304 pp.; Religious Jewry and the United Nations: Addresses before the United Nations (New York, 1953), 136 pp.; In the Struggle Against Discrimination: Addresses before Various Organs of the United Nations and the Congress of the United States (New York, 1957), 148 pp.; In Defense of Shehitah (New York, 1958), 34 pp.; Late Summer Fruit: Essays (New York, 1960), 174 pp.; Tsu der geshikhte fun agudes yisroel (Toward the history of Agudat Yisrael) (New York: Orthodox Library, 1964), 158 pp.; War on War (New York, 1969), 188 pp.; Ten Years of Hope (New York, 1971), 105 pp.; The Jewish Community in Poland: Historical Essays (New York, 1985), 247 pp.; and many more.  He edited: Ela ezkera (These I remember), monographs on murdered religious Jewish leaders and writers during the years of the Holocaust (New York, 1957-1960), 5 vols., each roughly 320 pp., including a monograph he wrote about his father, Toldot hagaon rabi aharon levin (Biography of the brilliant Rabbi Aharon Levin), which also appeared separately in print (New York, 1957), 32 pp.; Ḥomer lesheelat hitkonenut ṿesidur hamedina hayehudit al-pi hatora (Material for the question of preparation and arrangement of the Jewish state according to the Torah) (New York, 1948), 32 pp.; with Jacob Apenszlak, The Black Book of Polish Jewry: An Account of the Martyrdom of Polish Jewry under Nazi Occupation (New York, 1943), 343 pp.; Yidn in altn poyln, historishe eseyen (Jewish in ancient Poland, historical essays) (Buenos: Poylishe yidn, 1962), 184 pp.

Sources: Dr. M. Balaban, in Chwila (Lemberg) (July 12, 1937); Balaban, in Nasz Przegląd (Warsaw) (July 18, 1937); Dr. M. Alter, in Miesięcznik żydowski (Lodz) 3 (1937); Z. Zilbertsvayg, in Der amerikaner (New York) (August 15, 1947); Dr. Philip Fridman, in Der amerikaner (July 1, 1949); Sh. Rotshteyn, in Der amerikaner (July 28, 1950); Sh. D. Leder, Reysher yidn (Rzeszów Jews) (Washington, 1953), pp. 289-91; M. Prager, in Talpiyot (New York) (Tevet 3-4 [= January 1-2], 1952), pp. 873-74; Hilel Zaydman, in Talpiyot (Iyar [= April-May] 1955); M. Shvartsman, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (January 6, 1958); Y. Fridnzon, in Dos idishe vort (New York) (December 1960); Y. Mishael, in Hadoar (New York) (Iyar 8 [= April 24], 1961); Rabbi Arn Ben-tsien Shurin, in Forverts (New York) (November 25, 1960); Sh. Izban, in Der amerikaner (August 18, 1961); Arn Tsaytlin, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (August 25, 1961); Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York: YIVO and Yad Vashem, 1962), see index; Rabbi Meyer Shvartsman, in Keneder odler (May 13, 1963); Ts. Kohen, “Pilpul af yidish” (Casuistry in Yiddish), Forverts (May 19, 1963).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 347.]

Tuesday, 23 May 2017


YANKEV (-LEYB) LEVIN (JACOB LEON) (August 6, 1884-December 6, 1958)
            He was born in Tolochin (Talachyn), Byelorussia.  His father was an elementary schoolteacher.  Until age fourteen he attended his father school and at the same time a Russian private school.  In 1898 he came to Minsk and attended yeshiva there, but he was also concerned with secular subject matter.  In 1900 he left for Warsaw, and as an external student he prepared for the entrance examinations into senior high school.  In 1903 he joined the local Minsk Labor Zionist group and soon thereafter switched to the just formed Zionist Socialist Party.  For organizing a self-defense group in Tolochin (after the pogrom in Homel [Gomel] in August 1903), he was arrested and spent four months in prison.  In 1906 he published for the first time an article in the organ of Zionist socialism, Der nayer veg (The new way), in Vilna.  He later departed for St. Petersburg, passed the exams for the eighth class of high school, received a teacher’s certificate, studied agronomy for three years, and at the same time attended the Institute for Oriental Languages (founded by Baron Günzburg) where the professors included Shimon Dubnov, Lawyer Sliozberg, and Mark Vishnitser.  The police banished him from St. Petersburg in 1911.  Levin then left for Israel and went on to publish in Fraynd (Friend) a series of articles entitled “Di lage fun di yidishe arbeter in palestine” (The condition of Jewish workers in Palestine) and a longer work entitled “Di yidishe kolonizatsye in palestine” (Jewish colonization in Palestine) which appeared later in the monthly journal Di yudishe velt (The Jewish world) in Vilna.  On the eve of WWI, he was living in Warsaw where he was one of the pioneers of secular Jewish schools, participated in establishing the first program for the school with Yiddish as the language of instruction, and served as the first teacher of Yiddish in the private seven-class high school for girls of Mrs. Koletski.  He also took part in compiling a Yiddish school reader.  At the start of WWI, he was mobilized into the Russian army, fled from there because of the frightful anti-Semitism on the part of the officers, and in late 1915 reached the United States via Japan.  In New York he was active in the Socialist Territorialist Labor Party and contributed to (and later served as editor of) the party organ Undzer vort (Our word), in which he incidentally published fragments of his utopia of a Jewish socialist land: “Nayland” (New land).  In 1918, after the Zionist socialists in New York united with the Labor Zionists, he withdrew from political work and turned his attention thoroughly to building the secular Yiddish school in New York.  He was the manager of the first Workmen’s Circle school in Harlem and director of the first Workmen’s Circle middle school and of the Workmen’s Circle’s courses for preparing teachers for its schools.  He compiled a series of books for teachers and students.  He edited: Kinder-zhurnal (Children’s magazine), Kinder-land (Children’s land), Ertsiung (Education) together with L. Lehrer and K. Marmor, Unzer kind (Our child) together with Dr. Merison and L. Lehrer, and Shul un lerer (School and teacher).  In the 1920s, when a struggle between right and left flared up within the Workmen’s Circle, Levin strove to keep the Workmen’s Circles school neutral before the political fight.  After the split, he succeeded in keeping seventeen of twenty-three Workmen’s Circle schools as impartial Yiddish schools.  The left with its propaganda quickly seized the majority of the “impartial” schools.  For a short time, he continued to administer a small number of “Jewish labor schools” which ultimately returned to the Workmen’s Circle, and Levin once again became a teacher in a Workmen’s Circle middle school.  In 1928 he was among the founders and the first secretary of the Yiddish Culture Society.  Over the course of thirty years, he was director of the children’s colonies: “Kinderland” (Children’s land), “Nayvelt,” and “Zumer-land” (Summerland).  He published articles on pedagogical and general community issues in: Di tsukunft (The future), Fraynd (a publication of the Workmen’s Circle), Der tog (The day), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), Fraye arbeter-shtime (Free voice of labor), Naye velt (New world), and Sotsyalistishe shtime (Socialist voice), among others, in New York.  In book form: with Y. Lukovski and Sh. Hurvits, Unzer naye shul, a khrestomatye far kinder fun 2tn un 3tn lernyor mit bilder in tekst (Our new school, a reader for children in the second and third school year with pictures in the text) (Warsaw, 1913), 230 pp.; Di naye idishe shul, a lern-bukh far yidishe onfangers (The new Yiddish school, a textbook for Yiddish beginners) (New York, 1916), 150 pp., with numerous reprints; Der emes vegn palestina (The truth about Palestine) (New York: American Jewish Socialist Federation, 1917), 157 pp.; Perets, a bisl zikhroynes (Perets, a few remembrances) (Warsaw, 1919), 64 pp.; Di naye yidishe shul, part 2 (New York, 1920), 194 pp.; Kultur-geshikhte (Cultural history), part 3 (Warsaw, 1920), 305 pp.; Di idishe arbayter-ring-shul, ir tsil un program (The Yiddish Workmen’s Circle school, its goal and program) (New York, 1920), 64 pp.; Blumen, ṭeksten fun lider tsu zingen in di idishe shulen (Flower, texts of songs to sing in the Yiddish schools) (New York, 1920), 127 pp.; Der onfanger, lernbukh tsu lernen kinder leyenen un shraybn idish (The beginner, textbook to teach children to read and write Yiddish), six parts (New York, 1922-1928); Mayses un legendes fun der yidisher geshikhte (Tales and legends from Jewish history), 3 parts (New York, 1928-1934), 407 pp.; Dos naye bukh, literarishe un historishe khrestomatye, leyenbukh far dem eltern klas fun der elementarer shul un dem ershtn klas fun mitlshul (The new book, literary and historical reader, textbook for the older class in elementary school and the first class in middle school) (New York, 1929), 400 pp.; Ken idish, lernbukh tsu helfn di kinder oyslernen zikh rikhtik shraybn un redn idish (Know Yiddish, a textbook to help children master proper writing and reading of Yiddish) (New York, 1933), 117 pp.; Der nayer onfanger, lernbukh tsu lernen kinder leyenen, shraybn un redn yidish (The new beginner, textbook to teach children to read, write, and speak Yiddish) (New York, 1945); Yidishe geshikhte far kinder (Jewish history for children) (New York, 1946).  In his last few years, Levin edited and brought out a mimeographed publication, Afn veg (On the way), in which he tried to create a kind of “Shulḥan Arukh” [a complete guide] for secular Jews, with instructions for how to carry on Jewish traditions.  He died in New York.

Sources: M. Golding, in Forverts (New York) (March 25, 1931); A. Kh. Heler, in Tsukunft (New York) (March 1931); B. Fridman, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (December 28, 1931); Z. Yefroykin, in Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (May 1955); Kh. Sh. Kazdan, Fun kheyder un shkoles biz tsisho (From religious and secular primary schools to Tsisho) (Mexico City, 1956), see index; B. Y. Byalostotski, in Forverts (December 17, 1958); Y. B. Beylin, in Morgn-frayhayt (December 21, 1958); M. Ravitsh, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (December 30, 1958); B. Shefner, in Forverts (January 17, 1959); Yudel Mark, in Yidishe bukh-almanakh (Yiddish book almanac) (New York, 1960), pp. 43-48; obituary notices and appreciations in the Yiddish newspapers of New York after Levin’s death; Leybush Lehrer, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (March 8, 1963).
Borekh Tshubinski


YOYSEF LEVIN (b. ca. 1870)
            He was raised in Zlotopol (Zlatopil), Ukraine.  He attended religious elementary school.  By trade he worked as a tailor.  Just before WWI he came to the United States.  His books include: Fun der khasene (From the wedding), a life story (Brooklyn, 1932), 167 pp.; Fun nokh der khasene (From after the wedding) (New York, 1933), 184 pp.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 346-47.


YEḤEZKEL LEVIN (1898-July 1941)
            He was born in Rohatin (Rohatyn), Galicia, into a rabbinical family.  He graduated from the philosophy department of Cracow University.  In 1926 he was accepted as rabbi in Katowice, and in 1928 he was rabbi in Lemberg.  He was a cofounder and lecturer at the Hebrew Teachers’ Institute (“Pedagogium”).  From 1924 he wrote for the Polish Jewish and Yiddish press in Galicia.  He contributed journalistic articles and literary essays in the Polish-language Chwila (Moment) in Lemberg and Nowy dziennik (New daily) in Cracow, as well as the Yiddish-language Lemberger togblat (Lemberg daily newspaper) and Der morgen (The morning) in Lemberg; he also wrote for Zionist party periodicals in Yiddish, Polish, and German.  For a time he was editor of the Polish-language, Zionist weekly Opinia (Opinion) in Warsaw (in which he published editorials signed “L”), and for the publishing house “Tsufim.”  On July 1, 1941, the second day of Nazi rule in Lemberg, Ukrainian militiamen dragged him to the Brygidki Prison.  He was murdered with Lemberg Jewry.

Source: Dr. Hilel Zaydman, Ela ezkera (These I remember) (New York, 1961), pp. 65-69.
Khayim Leyb Fuks

Monday, 22 May 2017


YEHUDA-LEYB LEVIN (1921-December 20, 1978)
            He was born in Warsaw, Poland, the son of the Orthodox leader, Itshe-Meyer Levin.  He attended religious primary school and the Gerer Rebbe’s small synagogue, and he had private tutors as well.  Until 1940 he lived in Warsaw, later making his way through Italy to Israel.  He contributed work to: Haderekh (The pathway) in Vienna; Kol yisrael (Voice of Israel) in Tel Aviv; Dos idishe vort (The Jewish word) in New York; Di idishe vokh (The Jewish week) in London; and Hamodia (The herald) in Jerusalem, of which he was editor-in-chief.  He was the author of: Torat ḥidushe harim (The Torah novellae of the Rim [Rabbi Yitsḥak Meir Rotenberg]) (Jerusalem, 1949); the two-volume Ḥasidim mesaprim (Hassidim recount); and other works as well.  He was editor of Entsiklopedye fun poylishn identum, megilat polin (Encyclopedia of Polish Jewry), in Yiddish and Hebrew—vol. 5, part 1 entitled Khurbn (Holocaust) (Jerusalem, 1961), 351 pp. has appeared.  He published under such pen names as: Arye, Hamashkif, and Haorekh.  He died in Jerusalem.

Sources: Sefer hashana shel haitonim (Newspaper yearbook) (Tel Aviv, 1957/1958-1960/1961); information from R. Avrom Zemba in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


YANKL LEVIN (1882-1938)
            He was born in Homel (Gomel), Byelorussia, the son of a carpenter.  Until age thirteen he studied in religious elementary school and later became a carpenter himself.  He early on joined the illegal socialist movement and was a cofounder of the “little Bund” in Homel.  Subsequently, in the years of reaction before WWI, he traveled on illegal assignment for the Bund’s central committee through the cities and towns of the Jewish Pale.  He was arrested on several occasions and spent time in Tsarist prisons, and he took an active part in the first Russian Revolution of 1905.  He served as a Bundist party functionary in Warsaw, 1913-1914.  He was active in the Bund in Ukraine during WWI and took part in 1916 in the Kharkov conference of the Bund.  During the Russian Revolution of 1917, he was among the leadership of the Bund in the western regions.  He traveled about on party assignments through Byelorussia.  At the eleventh conference of the Bund in Minsk (March 1919), he moved to the pro-Soviet majority and was coopted onto the central committee of the party.  At the conference in which the party split in 1920, in Moscow, he went with the leftist majority which formed the Kombund (Communist Bund), and thereafter joined the Russian Communist Party, in which he assumed positions of responsibility in the Gezerd (All-Union Association for the Agricultural Settlement of Jewish Workers in the USSR) movement, in the campaign for Jewish colonization in Crimea, and in proclaiming Birobidzhan as a Jewish national center.  Very active in the 1920s, he lived the first half of the decade in Minsk and did much to advance Yiddish culture in Byelorussia.  He went to Birobidzhan in 1929, served as secretary of the Birobidzhan regional committee of the Communist Party, and in its name appeared at meetings of Gezerd in Birobidzhan.  He published (using the pseudonym Yanklzon) correspondence pieces from Warsaw to the Bundist Tsayt (Times) in St. Petersburg (1912-1914), and later from time to time he wrote for Veker (Alarm), the Bundist organ in Minsk.  He served as one the editors of Veker (1917-1925), and when Shtern (Star) was founded in Minsk in 1925 as a literary-artistic journal he joined the editorial collective.  In his Communist period, he wrote much more.  He published memoirs of the first Russian Revolution in Emes (Truth) in Moscow, which appeared later in a separate publication entitled Fun yene yorn, “kleyn-bund” (From those years, the “Little Bund”) (Minsk, 1924), 40 pp., as well as articles on colonization in Crimea and in Birobidzhan, which later appeared separately as: Fragn un entfern vegn der yidisher kolonizatsye in ratnfarband (Questions and answers concerning Jewish colonization in the Soviet Union) (Moscow, 1928), 20 pp., second printing (Buenos Aires, 1928) and Vi azoy ken men ibervandern in krim un birobidzhan? (How can one immigrate to Crimea and Birobidzhan?) (Moscow, 1930), 14 pp.  Levin also contributed to: Shtern in Minsk, which he co-edited (1925-1926) with Sh. Ogurski, B. Orshanski, A. Osherovitsh, and V. Nodel; Di royte velt (The red world) in Kharkov; publication for youth and children, such as Yungvald (Young forest), Pyoner (Pioneer), and Yunge gvardye (Young guard)—in Moscow (1923, 1928); and Zay greyt (Get ready) in Kharkov (1928-1937).  He also placed writings in Birobidzhaner shtern (Birobidzhan star) (1930-1937).  In the publication Birebidzhan (Birobidzhan), “collection of materials and documents” (Moscow, 1932), pp. 20-42, he published “A yor arbet in birobidzhan” (A year’s work in Birobidzhan).  He translated from Russian into Yiddish: Dmitrii Stonov, Bolshevikes (Bolsheviks [original: Bol’sheviki]) (Moscow, 1927), 40 pp.  At the All-Ukrainian Conference of Yiddish Proletarian Writers in Kharkov, he was selected to serve in the top management of Yiddish writers in the All-Ukrainian Writers’ Union.  From 1925 he was involved with the leadership of the Jewish section of national minorities in the Ukrainian government.  In the autumn of 1937, during the liquidation of Gezerd and the repression of former leaders of the Bund, Levin was arrested on the charge of being a Japanese spy, and thereafter nothing more was heard of him.  According to information from one of the oldest of Birobidzhan residents, named Tshernobrod, Yankl Levin (together with the first secretary of the Birobidzhan Party Committee) was sent to do hard labor in a camp in Kolyma, and later (until the German attack on Russia in June 1941), he worked in a shoemaker’s workshop in Magadan.  In late July 1941, when thousands of Polish deportees were murdered, Levin was shot as a “Japanese spy.”  Another account has it that he was shot in Khabarovsk in 1938.

Sources: Biblyografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Bibliographic yearbooks from YIVO) (Warsaw, 1928), see index; A. Kirzhnits, Di yidishe prese in vaysrusland, 1917-1927 (The Yiddish press in Byelorussia, 1917-1927) (Minsk, 1929), nos. 14, 229, 337; A. Abtshuk, Etyudn un materyaln (Studies and materials) (Kharkov, 1934), pp. 250-51; Volf Bresler, Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944), p. 931; Y. Sh. Herts, Di geshikhte fun a yugnt (The history of a youth) (New York, 1946), pp. 64-65; Herts, Di geshikhte fun bund in lodz (The history of the Bund in Lodz) (New York, 1958), pp. 233-34; N. Mayzil, Dos yidishe shafn un der yidisher arbeter in sovetn-farband (Jewish creation and the Jewish worker in the Soviet Union) (New York, 1959), p. 108; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index; oral information from Y. Emyot and Y. Birnboym in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 215-16.]


KHANE LEVIN (May 16, 1900-January 19, 1969)
            She was born in Ekaterinoslav (now, Dnepropetrovsk), Ukraine. She studied in a Russian and a Jewish school, later working as a tailor and a clerk in a shop.  After the 1917 Revolution, she graduated from a pedagogical institute and worked as a teacher in Jewish schools.  She served in the Red Army during the Civil War—this period in her life was later reflected in her poem “Eyne vi a sakh andere” (One like many others).  She began writing poetry in Russian, though under the influence of the poet Leyb Naydus who was in Ekaterinoslav in 1915, she switched to Yiddish.  In 1918 Lenin published her first poems.  Beginning in the 1920s, her poems and stories appeared in various Yiddish publications, and in 1929 her first collection of poems, entitled Tsushtayer (Contribution) was published in Kharkov (142 pp.)—its principal motifs were among the best of women’s lyrical poetry, and later she created an original poetry of maternal figures.  Literary critics noted that she was the first Yiddish poetess in the Soviet Union who began to seek out her own terrain for the development of a woman’s poetry, and her poems succeeded with their lyrical sincerity and with their clear language of genuine human feeling.  Children’s poetry which she wrote throughout her life constituted the second major layer of her work.  In her last volume of poetry, entitled In a gute sho (At a good time) (Kiev-Lvov, 1940), 99 pp., is included effectively the best work that she wrote over a long period of time for children: on animals (“Der ber” [The bear], “Di kats hot moyre far a frost” [The cat fears freezing weather]), nature stories (“A regn” [A rainfall]. “Feygl flien” [Birds fly]), children’s ways (“Mariane helft der mamen” [Mariane helps her mother], “Broyges” [Anger], “A shtile shpil” [A quiet game]).  She also composed prose; in 1943 her collection Af shrit un trit (Every step of the way) (Moscow) appeared, and it included stories from the war years.  Other books include: Kleynikeytn (Trifles), poetry (Kharkov-Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1933), 239 pp.; Oyg af oyg (Vis-à-vis) (Kharkov, 1933); Di yingere fun mir (Those younger than me), poetry (Kharkov-Kiev: Ukrainian state publishers for national minorities, 1934), 175 pp.; A mayse vegn a feld-gandz, a lerkhe un a suslik (A story about a wild goose, a skylark, and a gopher) (Kharkov-Odessa, 1937), 19 pp.; Vilenke un maye (Vilenka and Maya) (Warsaw, 1937), 16 pp.  She died in Kharkov.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 346; Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 214-15.