Wednesday, 17 April 2019

NAKHMEN KRUPIN


NAKHMEN KRUPIN (d. June 1962)
            He wrote for Nay velt (New world).  He was the author of Hantbukh fun hebreizmen in der yidisher shprakh (Handbook of Hebraisms in the Yiddish language) (Buenos Aires, 1957), 252 pp.  He studied for a time in the United States and died in Los Angeles.
Berl Cohen


MIKHL KRUL


MIKHL KRUL
            He was one of the leaders of the Polish Socialist Party (P.P.S.).  Over the years 1905-1907, he was linked to the illegal Yiddish periodicals of the party.  He edited Dos sotsyalistishe blatt (The socialist newspaper), organ of the Jewish committee of the P.P.S. (Warsaw, 1905), and Der arbayter (The worker) (Warsaw).

Source: Y. Shatski, Yoyvl-zamlbukh lekoved 250 yor yidishe prese (Jubilee collection in honor of 250 years of the Yiddish press) (New York, 1937), p. 326.
Yekhezkl Lifshits


KHAYIM KRUL


KHAYIM KRUL (April 11, 1892-February 1, 1946)
            He was a poet, born in Lodz, descended from a rabbinical lineage.  He studied in religious elementary school.  He was early on left an orphan.  Until 1914 he worked in a weaving plant.  In 1922 he emigrated to the United States.  Already in his youth, he was suffering from a sleep and shivering illness, and he experienced a tragic love.  He debuted in print in Lodz’s Gezangen (Songs).  He published poems and on occasion literary articles in: Yung-idish (Yong Yiddish), Vegn (Pathways), Shveln (Thresholds), S’feld (The field), Seglen (Sails), Oyfgang (Rise), Nay-idish (New Yiddish), Shriftn (Writings) 7-8, Kanader vokhnblat (Canadian weekly newspaper), Tsukunft (Future), Frayhayt (Freedom), Shikago (Chicago), Literarishe heftn (Literary notebooks), Fraye arbeter shtime (Free voice of labor), and Oyfkum (Arise), among other serials.  His work also appeared in: Naye yidishe dikhtung (Modern Yiddish poetry) (Iași, 1947); Avraham Tsvi Halevy’s Mehashira haidit baamerika (From the Yiddish poetry in America) (Tel Aviv: Hamenorah, 1967).  His works include: Loybn (Praises) (Lodz: Yung-idish, 1920), 31 pp.; Himlen un opgrunt (Skies and precipice) (Lodz: Akhrid, 1921), 40 pp.; Inderlayterung (Purification) (New York: Eygene, 1925), 91 pp.; Arun zikh, roman, lider, eseyen (Around oneself, novel, poetry, essays) (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1930), 69 pp., 130 pp., 131 pp.; Ksovim fun khayim krul (The writings of Khayim Krul), with a bibliography (New York: Eygene, 1954), 189 pp.  “Virtually all of Krul’s poems were religiously erotic,” noted Zalmen Reyzen, “having actually written most of them in the style of a prayer; often sentimental, they nonetheless make an impression with their simplicity, freshness, intimate tone, and naïveté.”  “The shimmering quality of his word,” wrote Y. Y. Sigal, “the subtlety, gentleness of his sensibility, is the precarious babble of words in a child’s mouth which has just begun to speak.  Although in his overall world view,…there is something old, distant, and cold with respect to life, nonetheless his words remain so young, green, and fresh.”  He died in Paterson, New Jersey.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vo. 3; Dovid Bergelson, in In shpan (Vilna) (May 26, 1926); Y. Y. Sigal, in Shriftn (New York) 8; Yitskhok Bashevis, in Tsukunft (New York) (August 1943); Benyomen Grobard, A fertlyorhundert, esey vegn der yidisher literatur in amerike (A quarter century, essay on Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1935), p. 188; Dovid Ignatov, Opgerisene bleter, eseyen, farblibene ksovim un fragmentn (Torn off sheets, essays, extant writings, and fragments) (Buenos Aires: Yidbukh, 1957), pp. 123-50; Borekh Rivkin, Yidishe dikhter in amerike (Yiddish poets in America) (Buenos Aires, 1959), pp. 220-26; Shimen Dovid Zinger, Dikhter un prozaiker, eseyen vegn shrayber un bikher (Poets and prose writers, essays on writers and books) (New York: Educational Dept. of Workmen’s Circle, 1959); Yankev Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (In essence), vol. 2 (Buenos Aires, 1960), p. 286; Khayim Leyb Fuks, Lodzh shel mayle, dos yidishe gaystiḳe un derhoybene lodzh, 100 yor yidishe un oykh hebreishe literatur un kultur in lodzh un in di arumiḳe shtet un shtetlekh (Lodz on high, the Jewish spiritual and elevated Lodz, 100 years of Yiddish and also Hebrew literature and culture in Lodz and in the surrounding cities and towns) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1972), see index.
Dovid-Noyekh Miller


YUDE KROYS (JEHUDA KRAUSZ)


YUDE KROYS (JEHUDA KRAUSZ) (b. 1858)
            He was a rabbi in Lakenbach, Hungary.  He compiled and translated from Hebrew religious texts on the religious laws and customs: Mogn oves, erklerung dem kadish yortsayt (Star of the forefathers, explanation of kaddish and yortsayt) (Bácz: M. Segel Rozenboym, 1897/1898), 20 pp.; Minkhe khadoshe, im shemen haminkhe, kurts gefaste dinim, nide, slikhe, khale vehavdole (New afternoon service, with the oil offering, laws on short fasts, sexual purity, penitential prayers, challah, and separation service [between Shabbat and the ordinary weekdays]) (Bácz, 1900), 22 pp.; Beyn meylekh venozer, fon avrom haleyvi br’ khasdey, in daytsher shprakhe iberzetst (Between king and eremite, by Abraham Halevi, son of R. Ḥasdei, in German [= Judeo-German] translation) (Bácz, 1904/1905); Divre emes, vorte der belehrung und tsurikhvayzung (Words of truth, words of explanation and disapproval) (Bácz, 1910), 31 pp.; Minhoge yisroel, di yidishen gebreykhe geordnet und erklert (Leaders of Israel, the Jewish customs arranged and explained) (Seini: Yankev Vider, 1926/1927), 144 pp.
Yekhezkl Lifshits


M. KROYN


M. KROYN
            He was the author of Khaykel der lets, oder der berihmter vitsling (Khaykl the clown, or the celebrated wag) (New York: Hebrew Publishing Co., n.d.), 62 pp.
Berl Cohen


HERSH-LEYZER KROY


HERSH-LEYZER KROY (December 25, 1900-December 29, 1956)
            He was a journalist, born in Lodz.  In the early 1920s, he was part of the Lodz literary circle “Yung-yidish” (Young Yiddish).  He was active among the Labor Zionists.  In late 1939 he fled to Vilna and later to Kovno.  In 1940 he arrived in the land of Israel.  Initially, he was writing poetry, stories, and literary articles in Lodz’s Gezangen (Songs), S’feld (The field), Trit (Steps), and Shveln (Thresholds), among other serials.  Later, he confined himself to general and party journalism in: Lodzer tageblat (Lodz daily newspaper), Warsaw’s daily Dos vort (The word; later, Dos naye vort [The new word], of which he was an editorial board member), the weekly In kamf (In battle), and Unzer frayhayt (Our freedom).  He edited the afternoon edition of the Kovno daily newspaper Dos vort, entitled Dos vort baytog (The word daytime), in early 1940 and the Parisian daily Unzer vort (Our word) over the period 1950-1953.  He also wrote in Hebrew.  His pen name: Ben-Moyshe.  He died in Tel Aviv.

Sources: Getzel Kressel, Leksikon hasifrut haivrit (Handbook of Hebrew literature), vol. 2 (Meravya, 1967); Kroy, Ketavim nivarim (Selected writings) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 9-19; Y. Shpigl, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (June 16, 1959); Khayim Leyb Fuks, Lodzh shel mayle, dos yidishe gaystiḳe un derhoybene lodzh, 100 yor yidishe un oykh hebreishe literatur un kultur in lodzh un in di arumiḳe shtet un shtetlekh (Lodz on high, the Jewish spiritual and elevated Lodz, 100 years of Yiddish and also Hebrew literature and culture in Lodz and in the surrounding cities and towns) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1972), p. 98.
Berl Cohen


MIKHL (MIKHAIL) KRUTIKOV


MIKHL (MIKHAIL) KRUTIKOV (b. 1957)
            A scholar of literature, he was born in Moscow.  In 1979 he graduated from the mechanics and mathematics department of Moscow State University, and until 1989 he worked as a programmer.  From the early 1980s he became interested in literature in Hebrew and Yiddish.  He debuted in print in 1986 in the journal Sovetish heymland (Soviet homeland) in Moscow.  Over the years 1989-1991, he worked for the editorial board of this journal, turning his attention to preparing the youth supplement to the journal, Yungvald (Young forest).  At the same time, he studied with the “Yidish” (Yiddish) group at the Maxim Gorky Literary Institute in Moscow and contributed to the Riga journal Vestnik Evreiskoi Kul’tury (Bulletin of Jewish culture).  He was a student, 1991-1995, at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, where in 1997 he defended his doctoral dissertation in the field of the history of Yiddish literature in the early twentieth century.  From 1996 until 2001, he worked at the Oxford Institute for Yiddish-language research and until 2002 he taught Yiddish literature in the school of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London.  He was a member, 1997-1999, of the editorial collective of the journal Di pen (The pen) in Oxford.  From 1999 he worked as a European correspondent for the Forverts (Forward) newspaper in New York; in it he published articles on literature and cultural themes.  Since 2003 he has been a professor at the University of Michigan.  He is the author of academic writings in Yiddish, English, and Russian.  His books include: Yiddish Fiction and the Crisis of Modernity, 1905-1914 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 248 pp.; From Kabbalah to Class Struggle: Expressionism, Marxism, and Yiddish Literature in the Life and Work of Meir Wiener (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011), 392 pp.; Der Nister’s Soviet Years: Yiddish Writer as Witness to the People (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2019).



Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 342.