Wednesday, 12 December 2018

REGINA (PERL) FRISHVASER


REGINA (PERL) FRISHVASER (1888-March 30, 1959)
            The wife of Ben Frishvaser, she was born in Austria.  She was an active leader in the Workmen’s Circle and for many years secretary of the managing committee of Forverts (Forward) in New York.  She contributed in the women’s section to Forverts.  She also published a cookbook in English.

Source: Forverts (New York) (April 1, 1959).
Yankev Kahan


BEN FRISHVASER (YEKUSIEL BOREKH)


BEN FRISHVASER (YEKUSIEL BOREKH) (1883-July 30, 1958)
            The husband of Regina (Perl) Frishvaser, he came from Sasov (Sasów), Galicia.  He moved to the United States and became active in the Workmen’s Circle.  For each Workmen’s Circle conference, he published a humorous publication Bezem (Broom), in which he would chide the elite by using humorous cartoons and jokes.  He also edited Der sasover (The Sasover), a six-page publication (two pages in English).  He died in New York.

Sources: Der sasover (New York) 31-32 (1939); Arbeter-ring boyer un tuer (Builders and leaders of the Workmen’s Circle), ed. Y. Yeshurin and Y. Sh. Herts (New York, 1962), p. 322.
Yankev Kahan


YISROEL-ZEV FRISHBERG


YISROEL-ZEV FRISHBERG (May 18, 1874-October 18, 1955)
            He was born in Druzhne, Podolia.  He studied in religious elementary school and synagogue study hall, and secular knowledge he studied on his own.  At age sixteen he became a Hebrew teacher in Kostopol (Kostopil) and later in Berdichev.  He was active in Zionist work primarily in the field of Hebrew education.  In 1904 he came to the United States.  For a time he was active in the Labor Zionist movement, later switching to Mizrachi.  In his youth he began writing Hebrew poetry.  He debuted in print with an essay following the Kishinev pogrom in Der fraynd (The friend) in St. Petersburg (1903).  In 1905 he published a series of letters from America in Der veg (The way) in Warsaw.  He was later among the first contributors to the Labor Zionist organ Der idisher kemfer (The Jewish fighter) in Philadelphia—aside from articles, he also published here a translation of Y. Ḥ. Brenner’s Arum a pintele (Around a point [original: Misaviv lenekuda]) over the period 1906-1907, as well as translations of Ḥ. N. Bialik, Aḥad-Haam, and others.  His work appeared in: Der id (The Jew), Dos idishe folk (The Jewish people), Idishes tageblat (Jewish daily newspaper), Varhayt (Truth), Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal), and Der tog (The day), among others.  Over the years 1942-1949, he served as co-editor of Der mizrakhi-veg (The Mizrachi way) in New York.  His work in Hebrew appeared in: Haleom (The nation), Hayom (Today), Shevilim (Pathways), Hatoran (The duty officer), Miklat (Sanctuary), Eden (Eden), Noar (Youth), Shevile hainukh (Educational paths), Lua aiasef, Hadoar (The mail), Aviv (Spring), Ben hador (Son of the generation), Hainukh haivri (Hebrew education), and Hamore (The teacher)—he also edited the last four of these.  His books in Hebrew include: Hazeman harishon (The first time) (New York, 1912), 28 pp.; Im hador (With the generation) (New York, 1932), 285 pp.; Reshit, limud kriya velashon (First, study reading and language) (New York, 1947); and others.  In Yiddish: Vos iz yidishe ertsihung? (What is a Jewish education?) (New York, 1917), 16 pp.  He died in New York.  In his memory was published Sefer zikaron ley. z. frishberg (Memorial volume for Y. Z. Frishberg) (New York, 1958), 98 pp.

Sources: P. Vyernik, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 10, 1932); obituary notices in the Yiddish press (October 19, 1955); Yoysef Kohen, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (March 23, 1956); Daniel Perski, in Hadoar (New York) (Tevet 1 [= December 16], 1955); Y. N. Adler, in Shevile hainukh (New York) (Winter 1955/1956); M. Ginzburg, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (July 21, 1958); A. R. Malachi et al., in Sefer zikaron ley. z. frishberg (Memorial volume for Y. Z. Frishberg) (New York, 1958).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


DANIEL FRISH (FRISCH)


DANIEL FRISH (FRISCH) (September 21, 1897-March 7, 1950)
            He was born in the land of Israel.  For many years he lived in Romania.  In 1921 he moved to the United States, and there he became a Hebrew teacher.  He was active in the Zionist Organization.  He contributed work to: New Palestine and Dos yidishe folk (The Jewish people), among other Zionist publications.  He also authored the pamphlet Tsienistishe organizatsye in amerike (Zionist Organization in America) (Washington, 1944).  He was president of the American Zionist Organization.  In book form: Dos heymland, a rayze in erets-yisroel (The homeland, a voyage in the land of Israel) (New York, 1947), 32 pp.  He died in New York.

Source: H. Y. Alderman, in Jewish Book Annual (New York) (1951-1952), p. 47.
Benyomen Elis


AVROM FRISH


AVROM FRISH (1891-1943)
            He was born in Kolomaye, eastern Galicia.  He attended religious elementary school, graduated from a Polish high school, and later studied medicine at the University of Vienna.  He served in the Austrian army in WWI.  From 1920 he worked for various Jewish institutions in Kolomaye and served as director of the local Jewish hospital as well as being a leader of the legal Bund.  He contributed poetry to the Warsaw-based Folks-tsaytung (People’s newspaper) and other publications.  In book form: Libe, nisht mer (Love, nothing more) (Kolomaye: Bloyer shtrokh, 1938), 120 pp.  He also left in manuscript Yiddish translations of plays by Shakespeare and Goethe’s Faust.  During the Nazi occupation during the years of WWII, he remained active in the Kolomaye ghetto.  He was killed by the Germans.

Sources: Foroys (Warsaw) (August 5, 1938); “Yizker” (Remembrance), Yidishe shriftn (Lodz) (1946); Pinkes kolomaye (Records of Kolomaye) (New York, 1957), pp. 285-86.
Benyomen Elis


MENDL FRITS


MENDL FRITS
            He was a Soviet writer, who wrote stories for: Yungvald (Young forest), Pyoner (Pioneer), and Emes (Truth) in Moscow; and Shtern (Star) in Kharkov; among others.  In book form: Der zavod ruft, fartseykhenungen (The factory calls, jottings), “a story of modern times” (Moscow: Emes, 1934), 76 pp.  Since the show trials of 1937, he has disappeared without a trace.  Biographical details remain unknown.

Sources: N. Rubinshteyn, Dos yidishe bukh in sovetnfarband (The Yiddish book in the Soviet Union) (1934), see index; N. Mayzil, Dos yidishe shafn un der yidisher shrayber in sovetn-farband (Jewish creation and the Jewish writer in the Soviet Union) (New York, 1959), see index.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


ZAYNVIL FRIMKES


ZAYNVIL FRIMKES
            He came from Volhynia.  He lived in Vilna and later in London.  He was active in the Jewish anarchist movement.  He contributed to and proofread publications of R. Mazin.  He published sketches and humorous pieces in Arbayter fraynd (Workers’ friend) and in Mazin’s biweekly publication Der tsienist (The Zionist) in London (1903-1904), among others.  He authored: a novel in verse, which he later reworked into a drama entitled Di traye liebe, a roman der nayer tsayt (Devoted love, a novel of modern times), a comedy in four acts (Vilna, 1`891), 103 pp.; and Nokh tsien, bruder (After Zion, brother) (London: Mazin, 1904), 12 pp.  Further information unavailable.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


BERL FRIMER (FRYMER)


BERL FRIMER (FRYMER) (May 16, 1912-January 19, 1991)
            He was born in Timoshgrod (Tomashhorod), Sarne (Sarny), Volhynia.  He studied in religious elementary school and later graduated from a Hebrew high school in Kovel (Kovle).  In 1936 he graduated from the law faculty of Liège University and received the title of doctor of law.  He settled in France.  For a time he was active in the Federation of Jewish Associations, the Association of Polish Jews in France, and other groups.  From his youth he was involved in the Zionist labor movement, initially with “Hashomer Hatsayir” (The young guard), later with Mapai (Workers’ Party in the Land of Israel), and he was a member of the central committee of the Zionist Action Committee.  In 1939, on assignment for the Association of Polish Jews, he traveled to the United States, and until 1946 lived in Chicago.  He was secretary of the local section of the Jewish National Labor Alliance, and later until 1952 he served as general secretary of the Labor Zionist party in America.  From 1952 he was living in the state of Israel, where he assumed leading positions in Histadruth (Israeli federation of labor).  He was director of the culture council, a speaker, and a lecturer.  On several occasions, he visited South Africa, the United States, the Soviet Union (1964), and Australia (1965).  From 1938 he was publishing articles on Jewish, Zionist, and cultural issues in: Parizer haynt (Paris today) and Unzer vort (Our word) in Paris; Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), Tog (Day), Tsukunft (Future), Forverts (Forward), Algemeyne zhurnal (General journal), and Jewish Frontier in New York; Letste nayes (Latest news), Heymish (Familiar), Di goldene keyt (The golden chain), Ikhud olami (World union), Davar (Word), and Hapoal hatsayir (Young worker) in Tel Aviv (he had charge of a column in the last of these dealing with the life of Jews in the diaspora); and Oystralishe yidishe nayes (Australian Jewish news) in Melbourne.  His books would include: Yidishe horizontn, eseyen un artiklen (Jewish horizons, essays and articles) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1978), 444 pp., English version as Jewish Horizons (New York: Cornwall Books, 1983); In fayer fun gesheenishn (In the fire of events), essays and articles (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1981), 301 pp.  He died in New York.

Sources: D. Tidhar, in Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the pioneers and builders of the yishuv), vol. 6 (Tel Aviv, 1955), pp. 2519-20; Sol. Kahan, in Di shtime (Mexico City) (July 30, 1960); D. Krants, in Tog (New York) (October 13, 1960); Y. Atsil, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (December 6, 1960); G. Jacobson, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (February 10, 1964); R. Rimun, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (October 30, 1964); Y. Shperling, in Di idishe post (Melbourne) (April 9, 1965).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 456.]


SIMON FREEMAN


SIMON FREEMAN (b. March 15, 1862)
            He was born in Kovno, Lithuania.  At age fourteen he took an administrative job with the Kovno police.  In 1880 he moved to London.  He was one of the founders of the Jewish Labor Club.  He wrote several items for the stage, and he composed poems for M. Winchevsky’s Poylisher idel (Polish Jew) and later for Arbayter fraynd (Workers’ friend).  He also wrote weekly articles entitled “Pitslekh un breklekh” (Bits and pieces).  From English he translated: Robert Ingersoll’s “Di toesn fun moyshe rabeynu” (The errors of Moses), published in Arbayter fraynd in 1892—later, the translation appeared in book form (London: Grupe Frayhayt, 1905; fourth printing, London: A. Golub, 1910), 95 pp.; and Thomas Paine’s “Di tsayt fun farshtand” (The age of reason), which was incomplete at the time the newspaper ceased publication.

Sources: Kalmen Marmor, “Der onheyb fun der yidisher literatur in amerike” (The beginning of Yiddish literature in America), Almanakh fun internatsyonaln arbeter-ordn (Almanac of the International Labor Order) (New York, 1940), p. 32; Rudolf Rocker, In shturem (In the storm) (Buenos Aires, 1952); Dov Sadan, in Leshonenu (Jerusalem) (Kislev [= November-December] 1962).
Yankev Kahan


YISROEL FREYNKEL


YISROEL FREYNKEL (February 1885-1965)
            He was born in the town of Upine (Upyna), Lithuania.  Until age sixteen he studied in the Telz yeshiva.  He later became a bookkeeper.  He lived for a time in St. Petersburg, where he was active in the Zionist Socialist party.  He spent two years in the United States and in 1913 left for South Africa.  There he contributed to a variety of literary publications, gave speeches, and was a cofounder of Johannesburg’s “Yiddish Literary Association.”  He died in Johannesburg.

Source: Ben-Shloyme, in Dorem-afrike (Johannesburg) (May-June 1965).
Benyomen Elis


SHOLEM FRAYND


SHOLEM FRAYND (b. October 5, 1881)
            He was born in Przekopana, near Przemyśl, eastern Galicia.  He was active in socialist and enlightenment circles of “Briderlekhkeyt” (Brotherhood [association of Jewish workers]) and “Yeshurun” (Israel).  In 1902 he settled in Cracow.  In 1905 he published a weekly newspaper Frayhayt (Freedom) and campaigned for socialist territorialism.  After WWI he was a member of the Jewish national council in Cracow.  He wrote about Jewish cooperatives for the Arbayter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) in Warsaw.  Over the years 1920-1924, he chaired the central committee of the right Labor Zionists and edited Dos arbeter vort (The worker’s word).  From 1924 he served as chairman of the “Association of Lovers of Jewish Art,” which in 1926 established a society to found a Yiddish theater in Cracow.  He also contributed to Togblat (Daily newspaper) in Lemberg (1902-1903) and Premishler vokhnblat (Przemyśl weekly newspaper), among others.  He mainly wrote scholarly articles on Jewish economics, cooperatives, and Jewish community matters, as well as feature pieces and memoirs of theater and literature.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; M. Ayzland, in Hapoal hatsayir (Israel) (July 24, 1965).
Yankev Kahan


Tuesday, 11 December 2018

LOUIS FREYMAN (FREIMAN)


LOUIS FREYMAN (FREIMAN) (1892-January 30, 1967)
            The pen name of Leyzer Genyuk, he was born in Ostropolye (Ostropol’), Volhynia, Russian empire.  In 1907 he moved to the United States and until 1911 lived in St. Louis, doing a variety of different jobs.  He was a cofounder of a theater circle, and he wrote and staged with this group his first works: Der royter shabes (The red Sabbath), among others.  As a writer he debuted in print with skits and stories in Di idishe prese (The Yiddish press) in St. Louis (1910).  He went on to place work in Shikager kuryer (Chicago courier) and elsewhere.  From 1919 he was thoroughly devoting his attention to the stage.  He was the author of some 100 plays, dramas and comedies, which were performed on the Yiddish stage throughout the world.  In book form, only the following appeared in print: Tsipke fayer (Tsipke fiery), a melodrama in four acts, published anonymously (Warsaw, 1925), 53 pp.; and Der blinder moler (The blind painter), a melodrama in three acts, with an epilogue (Warsaw, 1927), 64 pp.  His plays were performed in Yiddish theaters across the globe: Warsaw, Paris, New York, Buenos Aires, and elsewhere).  He died in New York.



Sources: Biblyografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Bibliographic yearbooks from YIVO) (Warsaw, 1928), see index; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 4 (New York, 1963), pp. 3269-81 (with a bibliography).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


ITSIK FREYMAN


ITSIK FREYMAN (b. 1908)
            He was born in Belz, Bessarabia.  At ten years of age, he began working in an oil factory.  He later worked as a turner and became involved in revolutionary activities.  In 1927 he came to the United States and took a three-year course at the leftist Jewish labor university in New York.  In 1930 he debuted in print with a poem in Morgn-frayhayt (Morning freedom).  He later contributed poetry to: the anthology Yunyon-skver (Union Square) in New York; and the almanac In shotn fun tlies, almanakh fun der yidisher proletarisher literatur in di kapitalistishe lender (In the shadow of the gallows, an almanac of Yiddish proletarian literature in the capitalist countries) (Kharkov-Kiev, 1932).  He left in manuscript a drama entitled Relsn (Rails), about the lives of metal workers in America.

Sources: A. Pomerants, in Proletpen (Kiev) (1935), p. 233; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index.
Benyomen Elis


MOYSHE FREYLIKHOV (MORRIS FREILICOFF)


MOYSHE FREYLIKHOV (MORRIS FREILICOFF) (October 12, 1886-January 30, 1981)
            He was born in Chernigov (Chernihiv), Ukraine.  At one year old, he moved with his parents to London.  There he received a Jewish and a general education.  In 1900 he founded one of the first Jewish youth clubs in England.  In late 1902 he moved with his parents to the United States.  He settled in Washington, D.C., where in 1911 he completed a degree in law.  He was among the first Labor Zionists in America.  He took part in the Jewish congress movement, in the people’s relief for war victims, and other associations.  He began writing in his youth—poems and articles in English.  He debuted in print in Yiddish with a poem entitled “May” (May) in Kalmen Marmor’s weekly newspaper Der londoner yid (The London Jew) in 1904.  In America he published a series of poems with ethnic revolutionary content in various Anglophone Jewish periodicals—also a pamphlet entitled A Message of Hope (1904) and in Yiddish Dos idishe folk (The Jewish people) in 1913.  From that point he dedicated himself to journalism, especially in Yiddish.  He contributed to: Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter) (1916-1918), Tog (Day), and Tsukunft (Future) in New York; Der shtern (The star), a Philadelphia anthology; Der idisher arbayter (The Jewish worker) of the right Labor Zionists; and in various English-language Jewish periodicals.  Over the years 1920-1922, he wrote for the daily newspaper Di tsayt (The times).  He also contributed to editing the Zionist socialist writings of Dr. Nakhmen Sirkin.  From time to time, he placed work in: Yugnt (Youth), Pyonern-froy (Pioneering woman), Vanguard, and Kalifornyer idishe shtime (Jewish voice of California) of Los Angeles.  In book form: Dzhuzepo matsini, denker un bafrayer (Giuseppe Mazzini, thinker and liberator) (Washington, 1924), 349 pp.; and Geklibene shriftn (Selected writings) (Atlanta, 1938), 256 pp.; The Builders and Defenders of the Sovereign State of Israel, ed. Deborah Freilicoff Paderofsky (Washington, 2011), 110 pp. (concerning Nakhmen Sirkin).  He died in Bethesda, Maryland.

Sources: Di tsayt (New York) (December 30, 1921); Pinkes (New York) 1 (1927-1928), p. 261; Dr. A. Mukdoni, in Tsukunft (New York) (October 1930; December 1943); Moyshe Shtarkman, in Yorbukh (New York) (1942/1943); Shtarkman, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (March 23, 1956).
Yankev Kahan


SH. FREYLIKH (LITMAN-GELTMAN)


SH. FREYLIKH (LITMAN-GELTMAN) (1898-July 26, 1946)
            His proper family name was Geltman.  He wrote under two other pen names.  He was born in Mezritsh (Międzyrzec), Poland.  In 1924 he arrived in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  For many years he served as a member of the editorial board of Di prese (The press) in Buenos Aires.  He was also a community leader, principally in the field of education.  He was primarily a feature writer (using the pen name Freylikh) and an important children’s author (under the pen name Litman).  He also wrote dramas.  His plays—Akht in suke (Eight in the Sukkah), Bal-shem (The Bal-Shem-Tov), and Rambam (Rambam [= Maimonides])—were staged in Argentina for many weeks.  In book form: Fun zeydns kval, fir stsenirungen (From Grandfather’s source, four stage sketches) (Buenos Aires, 1927), 79 pp.; Fun ale zibn zakhn, kinder-mayses (Of all seven things, children’s stories) (Buenos Aires, 1933), 109 pp.; A likhtike velt, kinder-mayses (An illuminated world, children’s stories) (Buenos Aires, 1935), 109 pp.; Mayselekh (Stories) (Warsaw: Kinder-fraynd, 1936), 16 pp.; Feter simkhes shpaserayen, kinder-mayses (Uncle Simkhe’s pleasantries, children’s stories) (Buenos Aires, 1936), 126 pp.; Forshtelungen (Performances) (Warsaw: Kinder-fraynd, 1937), 31 pp.; Erets-yisroel in 1937, a rayze iber shtet, kolonyes un kvutses (The land of Israel in 1937, a trip through cities, colonies, and agricultural collectives) (Buenos Aires, 1938), 238 pp.; Kazhe koryentes (Caja Corrientes), humorous sketches, scenes, and features (Buenos Aires, 1942), 176 pp.; Mayne heldn, dertseylungen un stsenkes far kinder (My heroes, stories and sketches for children) (Buenos Aires, 1944), 142 pp.; Kinder (Children), collected writings, vol. 1 (Buenos Aires, 1947), 232 pp.  He also translated S. Collodi’s Pinokio (Pinocchio) (Warsaw, 1938), 152 pp.
            “Sh. Freylikh…,” wrote Y. Botoshanski, “was for twenty-years the most popular author of Yiddish feature pieces in Argentina.  [He was also well known as] Litman, who was our most beloved Yiddish children’s writer and one of the best and most recognized Yiddish children’s writer generally….  Sh. Freylikh was a joy to read.  People read him, and people read his feature pieces and humorous sketches for themselves, people read them in crowded social groups, and they read them aloud before others.  He was the only Yiddish writer in Argentina whose plays were hits and ran for weeks and weeks….  Litman the children’s storyteller has still not properly been given his due.  He possessed such a sense of fantasy and humor that it was truly a joy for children.”



Sources: S. Kon, in Foroys (Warsaw) (May 27, 1938); V. Vevyorke, in Parizer haynt (Paris) 4152 (1938); Sh. Rozhanski, Dos yidishe gedrukte vort in argentine (The published Yiddish word in Argentina), vol. 1 (Buenos Aires, 1941), pp. 100, 101, 102, 136, 165, 166, 184; N. Khanin, A rayze iber tsentral- un dorem-amerike (A voyage through Central and South America) (New York, 1942), pp. 245-46; V. Bresler, Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944), p. 921; Kh. Ialti, in Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (November 1946); Ialti, in Der holts industryalist (Buenos Aires) 69 (1946); N. Frukhter, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (July 25, 1954); Y. Botoshanski, in Algemeyne entsiklopedye (General encyclopedia), “Yidn 5” (New York, 1957), p. 390; Botoshanski, in Di prese (August 1, 1961).
Leyb Vaserman


MAKS (MAX) FREYLIKH


MAKS (MAX) FREYLIKH (b. December 18, 1904)
            He was born in Blendov (Błędów), near Warsaw, Poland.  He received a traditional education.  From his early years, he was active in the Labor Zionist movement.  He made his way to Havana, Cuba, and from there to Caracas, Venezuela in 1931.  He began publishing in 1936 in Forverts (Forward) in New York.  In later years he also published in Heymish (Familiar) and Yidishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper) in Tel Aviv; Meksikaner lebn (Mexican life) in Mexico City; and Undzer gedank (Our thoughts) and Venezueler vokhnblat (Venezuela weekly newspaper) in Caracas.  He was last living in Caracas, Venezuela.

Source: Y. Khadashi, in Yidishe tsaytung (Tel Aviv) (February 26, 1965).
Yankev Kahan


YEKHEZKL FREYLIKH (CHARLES A. FREILICH)


YEKHEZKL FREYLIKH (CHARLES A. FREILICH) (August 11, 1905-September 23, 1955)
            He was born in Ostrov (Ostrów), Lomzhe district, Poland.  He studied in religious elementary school and yeshiva.  From Poland he moved to Argentina.  He graduated from the Jewish teachers’ seminary and New York City College, and received the degree of “bachelor of social science.”  He attended Syracuse University, and he received an M. A. degree from New York University.  He worked as a teacher in the Workmen’s Circle and Sholem-Aleichem schools.  He was a member of the central committee of “Adut Avoda-Poale-Tsiyon (Unity of labor and Labor Zionism), a member of the Zionism Council, and the Education Commission.  He began writing in the 1930s.  In 1939 he debuted in print with an essay on Sholem Asch’s Der man fun natseres (The man from Nazareth) in Chicago’s Yidisher kuryer (Jewish courier)—he later published essays and stories over the course of several years in this same serial.  He also contributed work to: Tsukunft (Future) and Tog (Day) in New York; Kiem (Existence) in Paris; Di goldene keyt (The golden chain) in Tel Aviv; and the English-language journal Opinion; among others.  Over the years 1949-1953, he served as literary editor of Undzer veg (Our way) in New York (using the pen name Y. Gil).  In book form: Viderklangen, dertseylungen (Echoes, stories) (New York, 1948), 319 pp.; Yoysef opatoshus shafungs-veg (Yoysef Opatoshu’s creative approach) (Toronto: Gershon Pomerants essay library, 1951), 164 pp.; Doyres, dertseylungen (Generations, stories) (Buenos Aires, 1955), 308 pp.  In Hebrew: Metsada verom (Masada and Rome), a historical novel, translated from a posthumous manuscript by M. Aram (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1962), 83 pp.
            “The influence of Opatoshu on Freylikh was not accidental,” noted Shloyme Bikl, “for there was without a doubt a certain creative kinship of spirit between the stormy literary strider, the teacher [rebbe] Yoysef Opatoshu, and the quiet and restless stepper [talmid], the pupil Yekhezkl Freylikh.  As was true of Opatoshu, so too Freylikh possessed his own capacity in the ancient religious texts, and also a passion for literary ‘ex-libris’ motives, namely he was happy to weave his narratives around figures whose design was to be found somewhere in a story of the distant past.  As was true of Opatoshu, so too Freylikh had a subtle sense of history, and the images and figures of spiritual heroism in Jewish history attracted and captivated him.  And there was somewhere in Freylikh, as there was in his teacher Opatoshu, the chief endowment of an artistic, picturesque quality lying as it were in the shape of the spiritual side of his heroes.”

Sources: Shmuel Niger, in Tog (New York) (May 16, 1948; September 16, 1952); Avrom Reyzen, in Di feder (New York) (1949; 1951-1952); Dr. A. Mukdoni, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 16, 1949); A. Glants-Leyeles, in Undzer veg (New York) (June 1951); Y. Berliner, in Der veg (Mexico City) (March 3, 1956); Shloyme Bikl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (new York) (September 16, 1956); Bikl, Shrayber fun may dor (Writers of my generation), vol. 2 (Tel Aviv, 1965); Sh. D. Zinger, Dikhter un prozaiker, eseyen vegn shrayber un bikher (Poets and prose writers, essays on writers and books) (New York, 1959), pp. 325-31; Zinger, in Undzer veg (December 1962; January 1963; September 1965).
Leyb Vaserman


Monday, 10 December 2018

YOSL FREYDKES


YOSL FREYDKES (1902-August 5, 1973)
            He was born in Bialystok.  In 1933 he emigrated to Argentina.  He wrote for Communist Yiddish publications.  He was a member of the editorial board of Ikuf-zhurnal (IKUF journal), a monthly for literature and criticism in Buenos Aires (1940-1965).  He died in Buenos Aires.
Yoysef Horn

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 456.


AYZIK FREYDKIN


AYZIK FREYDKIN (1892-1941)
            He was born in Vetke (Vetka), Homel district, Byelorussia.  He was left an orphan at age five.  He studied in religious elementary school and various yeshivas.  Later he worked as a teacher in a number of villages.  At age seventeen he left for Vilna and there became a copy-editor for Hazman (The times) and for Letste nayes (Latest news) (1916-1918).  In the latter he published poems, feature pieces, and articles.  He later contributed to Di naye velt (The new world), the anthology Lebn (Life), Ringen (Links), Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves), and the Bundist Undzer shtime (Our voice), among others.  Together with Sh. Dreyer and Falk Halperin, he published (1926) three issues of a weekly newspaper entitled Kunst un lebn (Art and life).  In book form: Avrom-ber gotlober un zayn epokhe, loyt farsheydene kvaln (Avrom-Ber Gotlober and his epoch, according to various sources) (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1916), 341 pp.  With Zalmen Reyzen, he compiled Finf megiles (Five scrolls) that Y. L. Perets had worked on, with all of their variants, and also A. b. gotlobers yidishe verk (A. B. Gotlober’s Yiddish works) (Vilna: B. Kletsin, 1937), 254 pp.  Other works include: Haynrikh hayne, der genyaler liriker (Heinrich Heine, the brilliant lyrical poet) (Warsaw: Groshn-biblyotek, 1931), 64 pp.; Gete, der goen fun vaymar (Goethe, the sage of Weimar) (Warsaw: Groshn-biblyotek, 1932), 62 pp.; Lev tolstoy, der novi fun yasnaya polyana (Lev Tolstoy, the prophet from Yasnaya Polyana) (Warsaw: Groshn-biblyotek, 1934), 63 pp.  He also translated Der kamf far ṿelt-hershaft un velt-vegn (The fight for world domination and world ways) by Pavel Rozental’ (P. Anman) (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1924), 288 pp.; Ilya Ehrenburg’s Der rayser (The grabber [original: Rvach]) (Vilna: Tomor, 1927), 625 pp.; Konstantin Fedin’s Shtet un yorn (Cities and years [original: Goroda i gody]) (Vilna: Tomor, 1930), 2 vols.; Maxim Gorky’s Umet un andere dertseylungen (Gloom and other stories) (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1928), 256 pp.; Gorky’s Malva un andere dertseylungen (Malva and other stories) (Vilna: Kletskin, 1928), 252 pp.  During WWII and the Nazi occupation, he was confined in the Vilna ghetto.  His wife, a Yiddish teacher, was killed in the Vilna ghetto during the Aktion of the “yellow certificates.”  He and his two sons were shot by the Germans at Ponar at the end of 1941.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; Dr. Yankev Shatski, in Pinkes (New York) 1 (1927-1928), pp. 162-68; Danyel Tsharni (Daniel Charney), in Tsukunft (New York) (January 1943); Charney, in Yidishe shriftn (Lodz) (1946); Shmerke Katsherginski, Khurbn vilne (The Holocaust in Vilna) (New York, 1947); Lerer yizker-bukh (Remembrance volume for teachers) (New York, 1954), p. 349.
Yankev Kahan


AVROM-YITSKHOK FREYDENBERG


AVROM-YITSKHOK FREYDENBERG (b. January 24, 1865)
            He was born in Nikolaev, Kherson Province, Ukraine.  He studied in religious elementary school and in the rabbinical seminary.  In 1896 he graduated from Odessa University.  He was a delegate to every Zionist congresses from 1898 to 1939.  He was cofounder of the Odessa “Bnei Tsiyon” (Children of Zion).  After the Bolshevik Revolution, he lived in Western Europe: Berlin, Paris, and elsewhere.  He began writing in Russian in Razsvet (Dawn) in St. Petersburg, later serving as editor of Tsienistisher almanakh (Zionist almanac) in Odessa (1902-1903).  In Yiddish he published articles in: Haynt (Today) and Unzer velt (Our world) in Warsaw; Gut morgn (Good morning) in Odessa); and Yidishe prese (Jewish press) in Berlin.  In book form: Zikhroynes fun a tsienistishn soldat (Memoirs of a Zionist soldier) (Brussels, 1938), 276 pp., Hebrew translation by Avraham Shlevin as
Zikhronotaṿ shel ḥayal tsiyoni (Jerusalem, 2017), 416 pp. (including additional articles translated from Russian).  Since WWII there has been no further information about him.

Source: B. Shoykhetman, in Kriyat sefer (Jerusalem) 15.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


MEYER-YANKEV FREYD


MEYER-YANKEV FREYD (August 31, 1871-March 25, 1940)
            He was born in Kalvarye (Kalvarija), Suwalk district, Lithuania.  He studied in a “cheder metukan” (improved religious elementary school).  He graduated high school in Mariampol (Marijampolė).  In 1889 he settled in Warsaw and worked in a business office; he later opened an advertising office as well as a publishing house and a bookshop primarily selling Judaica and Hebraica.  He contributed work to Hatsfira (The siren).  Under Perets’s influence, he switched to Yiddish and published in Perets’s anthologies: Yidishe biblyotek (Yiddish library), Literatur un lebn (Literature and life), and Yontef-bletlekh (Holiday sheets).  He wrote about the life of animals, the first of the genre in Yiddish literature.  He corresponded from Warsaw for Velt (World) in Vienna and to Fraynd (Friend) in St. Petersburg.  He adapted in Yiddish a German-language, sensational novel about Dreyfus and thus the volumes of his Kapitan dreyfus (Captain Dreyfus) was dubbed: “an extraordinarily interesting novel of contemporary times,” five kopeks a copy (incidentally, the first Yiddish novel sold in booklets in Poland), and the printings hugely successful.  They initially brought out as many as 25,000 copies.  The novel was also translated into Russian and Polish.  When L. Tsukerman began publishing a series of Yiddish books under the title “Tsukermans folks-biblyothek” (Tsukerman’s popular library) (Warsaw, 1889), Freyd adapted for the series: Di goldmakher, a emes interesante geshikhte…nokh haynrikh tshoke (The goldmakers, a truly interesting story…after Heinrich Zschokke [original: Das Goldmacherdorf (The Goldmakers’ village)]), 56 pp.; Shakespeare’s Der koyfman fun venedig (The Merchant of Venice), in the form of a story; Daniil Mordovtsev’s historical novel, Di heldn fun yerusholaim (The heroes of Jerusalem) (Warsaw: M. Spektor, 1898; Vilna, 1903), 104 pp.  He penned a pamphlet entitled Di groyse tsienistishe asife in minsk (The great Zionist assembly in Minsk) (Warsaw: Folks-bildung, 1902).  In Yud (Jew), among other items, he published a work entitled “Don yitskhok abravanel” (Don Isaac Abravanel) in 1899.  In 1910 he began publishing an illustrated weekly entitled Der shtral (The beam [of light]), under the editorship of A. L. Yakubovitsh.  Virtually every week, he wrote editorials, features, essays, and reviews of Polish and Yiddish writers, books, and theater, under such pen names as: A Fremder and Mi”f (Der shtral last fifteen months).  He published several chapters of memoirs involving Yehoash, Mendele, Y. A. Leyserovitsh, and his Dreyfus novel in Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) in Warsaw (1927).  He was an active Ḥovev-Tsiyon (Lover of Zion), later a political Zionist.  He was one of the elected heads of the Warsaw Jewish community council.  In 1924 he visited the land of Israel and in 1932 settled there.  He established when he arrived a newspaper entitled Haoyle (The immigrant [to Palestine]) and started writing his memoirs which was to appear in five booklets, two volumes.  The Hebrew edition was: Yamim veshanim, zikhronot vetsiyurim mitekufa shel amishim shana (Days and years, memoirs and paintings from a period of fifty years) (Tel Aviv, 1938/1939), which was a translation from the Yiddish by Avraham Zamir.  In Israel he published one further work in Yiddish: Vegvayzer un informator fun erets-yisroel (Guide and information to the land of Israel) (Tel Aviv, 1934), 66 pp.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (May 6, 1929); Sefer haishim (Biographical dictionary) (Tel Aviv, 1937); Nakhmen Mayzil, Y. l. perets, zayn lebn un shafn (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1931), vol. 1; yearbook of Polish Jewry (1940), pp. 57-59; Hadoar (New York) (August 2, 1940); Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (October 16, 1940); B. Kutsher, Geven amol varshe (As Warsaw once was) (Paris, 1955); D. Tidhar, Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the pioneers and builders of the yishuv), vol.11 (Tel Aviv, 1961), p. 3786.
Yankev Kahan

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 550.]


SONYE FRAY


SONYE FRAY (1903-1979)
            She was a journalist born in Zhitomir.  She was one of the first member of the Communist Youth in the city, and she took part in the civil war.  At eighteen years of age, she joined the Communist Party.  In the early 1920s she began her journalistic work, initially with the Kharkov journal Arbeter-yugnt (Workers’ youth), and she was later one of the organizers of the Moscow journal Yungvald (Young forest).  In Minsk she founded the newspaper Der yunger arbeter (The young worker).  She was also the first editor of the Minsk-based Byelorussian youth newspaper Chervona zmena (Red team).  From 1925 until 1932, she was involved with leading party work in Minsk, Tashkent, and Moscow.  After graduating from the Institute of Red Professors, she became a lecturer in political economy at a series of Moscow’s senior high schools, defended a dissertation on “the economic crisis in Russia over the years 1900-1903,” and received the title of candidate in economic science.  The mass campaign to “unmask the enemies of the people” did not avoid her, and she was purged in 1937; she spent eighteen years in prison and the gulag.  After being rehabilitated in 1956, she returned to Moscow.  Over the course of the following decades, she worked in the Moscow Institute for Foreign Languages, where she taught political economy.  Beginning in 1961, she was a member of the editorial collective of Sovetish heymland (Soviet homeland).

Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 300.


DANIEL FRAYBERG


DANIEL FRAYBERG (April 13, 1907-June 26, 1981)
            He was born in Anepol (Annopol), Poland.  He survived the Warsaw Ghetto, Auschwitz, and other concentration camps.  From 1950 he was living on Kibbutz Loame hagetaot (Fighters of the Ghetto).  He was the author of memoirs entitled: Fintsternish af der erd (Darkness over the land) (Tel Aviv: Hamenorah, 1973), 539 pp., Hebrew edition, oshekh kisa arets (Tel Aviv, 1970), 324 pp.  He died in Kibbutz Loame hagetaot.
Ezra Lahad

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 455.


MOSES FREEMAN


MOSES FREEMAN (February 19, 1859-June 7, 1937)
            He was born in Odessa, Russian empire.  He studied in religious elementary school, in the Romanovka yeshiva, and in the great yeshiva of Odessa.  He was one of those who founded “Am Olam” (Eternal people [Russian Jewish agricultural colonies]) in 1880.  He organized the second contingent of “Am Olam” and was with the group, including his family, that in 1882 came to New York.  They attempted to establish and outfit a farm in Vineland, New Jersey, and after it collapsed they returned to New York in 1884 to look for work.  He left for Philadelphia, where he initially took up work as a peddler.  He later had a variety of livelihoods.  In 1892 he edited and published Di idishe prese (The Jewish press), “a weekly newspaper for elucidation, truth, light, and unity” (August 26, 1892-March 23, 1894).  He also contributed to: Di idishe velt (The Jewish world); Bris akhim buletin (Brotherhood bulletin), a monthly journal; Propaganda-blat far der bris akhim organizatsye (Propaganda paper for the Brotherhood organization), edited by B. Tirkl; and co-edited Di filadelfyer prese (The Philadelphia press), a weekly newspaper (four issues).  In book form: Fuftsig yohr geshikhṭe fun idishen leben in filadelfye (Fifty years of Jewish life in Philadelphia, 1879-1929), part 1 (Philadelphia: Mid-City Press, 1929), 213 pp., part 2 (1934), 318 pp. (Philadelphia: Kultur, 1934).  This work is of considerable importance as a source on the history of Jewish immigration to America.  He died in Philadelphia.

Sources: Dovid-Ber Tirkl, in Pinkes (New York) 1 (1928), pp. 260-62; Dr. A. Mukdoni, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (May 29, 1945).
Yankev Kahan


ZALMEN FRIDRIKH


ZALMEN FRIDRIKH (January 6, 1910-May 1943)
            He was born in Warsaw.  He was secretary of the Warsaw Bundist sports organization “Morgenshtern” (Morning star) and a contributor to the weekly sports page of the Warsaw-based Folkstsaytung (People’s newspaper).  He was later editor and publisher of Arbeter-sportler (Worker-sportsman) in Warsaw (1929-1930).  He was confined in the Warsaw Ghetto.  He survived dangerous missions on the Aryan side.  He was the first to discover the gas chambers in the Nazi camps.  In early May 1943 he was murdered by the Germans in the village of Pludy, near Warsaw.

Sources: P. Shvarts, in Unzer tsayt (New York) (March 1945); Y. S. Tsh., in Folkstsaytung (Warsaw) (April 15, 1947; July 22, 1948); Y. Vilner, in Forverts (New York) (April 4, 1951); Vilner, in Unzer tsayt (September 1952).
Yankev Kahan


YOYSEF FRIDENZON


YOYSEF FRIDENZON (b. April 24, 1922)
            The son of Leyzer-Gershon Fridenzon, he was born in Lodz, Poland.  Until 1939 he studied at the yeshiva Ḥokhme lublin (Sages of Lublin).  During the Nazi occupation, he was confined in the Warsaw Ghetto and later in Auschwitz.  After liberation he left for Germany where he served as secretary general of Agudat Yisrael and also co-editor of the Orthodox newspaper Dos yudishe vort (The Jewish word)—with R. Aviezer Burshteyn and Dovid Adler.  In 1951 he came to the United States.  He contributed to the six volumes of the encyclopedia of martyrs’ biographies, Ela ezkera (These I remember) (New York, 1959); and to Hainukh vehatarbut haivrit (Hebrew education and culture) (New York, 1959).  He edited the holiday almanac for Dos yidishe vort (The Jewish word) in New York and its special jubilee issues.  He was the technical editor for the monthly Dos idishe vort (The Jewish word) put out by Agudat Yisrael, and he also edited the series “Ortodoksishe biblyotek” (Orthodox library)

Sources: Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), p. 241; N. Gordon, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (March 23, 1961); B. Ts. Goldberg, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (March 14, 1965).
Yankev Kahan


LEYZER-GERSHON FRIDENZON


LEYZER-GERSHON FRIDENZON (October 22, 1899-1943)
            The father of Yoysef Fridenzon, he was born in Viskit (Wiskitki), near Warsaw.  From 1920 he was publishing journalistic articles in the press of the Agudat Yisrael: Yud (Jew), Ortodoksishe bletlekh (Orthodox sheets) in Lodz (1920-1923), and fictional work in the Hebrew publication Deglanu (Our banner).  From 1924 he served as editor of the illustrated, monthly, family journal Beys yankev (House of Jacob) in Yiddish with the Polish supplement Wschód (East).  From July 1925 he published as well an Orthodox children’s journal Der kinder-gortn (The children’s garden).  He published articles in Der yidisher arbayter (The Jewish worker), central organ of “Poale Agudat Yisrael” (Workers of Agudat Yisrael) in Poland (Lodz, 1928-1932), and in the weekly newspaper Yidishe arbeter shtime (The voice of the Jewish worker) in Lodz (1936-1939).  He published a pamphlet entitled Tsu der yudisher yugend (To Jewish youth) (1922), 22 pp.  With Leyzer Shindler and Note Berliner, he edited an illustrated an alphabet and textbook for the first school year, entitled Yidish loshn (Yiddish language) (Lodz: Beys Yankev, 1932), 92 pp.  He also compiled a collection for children and youngsters entitled Der mames tsavoe (Mother’s will) (Lodz: Beys Yankev, 1936), 116 pp.  During the Nazi occupation, he was confined in the Warsaw Ghetto and directed the Beys Yankev school there.  In 1943 he was deported to Majdanek and murdered there.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; Tsukunft (New York) (November 1946); Kh. Sh. Kazdan, Di geshikhte fun yidishn shulvezn in umophengikn poyln (The history of the Jewish school system in independent Poland) (Mexico City, 1947), pp. 495-97; Dos yidishe vort (New York) (Nisan [= March-April] 1960; Ḥeshvan [= October-November] 1962, p. 39; Tamuz-Av [= June-August] 1964, p. 12); Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), p. 241.
Yankev Kahan


SHLOYME FRIDNTAL


SHLOYME FRIDNTAL (b. November 13, 1908)
            He was born in Zguritse (Zgurița), Bessarabia.  He graduated from a Tarbut middle school, a business school in Nancy, and the philological faculty in Jassy (Iași).  He contributed work to: Morgn-frayhayt (Morning freedom) in New York, Folks-shtime (Voice of the people) in Warsaw, and stories in Bukareshter shriftn (Bucharest writings).  His father SHMUEL-GERSHON (b. Onișcani in 1870-d. Jassy in 1963) wrote his memoirs for Bukareshter shriftn.
Y. Kara

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 455.


SHMUEL-ARN FRIDMAN


SHMUEL-ARN FRIDMAN (1856-1918)
            He was born in Minsk, Byelorussia, into a wealthy family.  He received both a Jewish and a general education.  He later became well-known as the cantor of Ponevezh (Panevėžys).  In 1888 he came to the United States.  His first year there he worked as a cantor in St. Louis, and later until his death in Cleveland.  He published articles on Jewish music and the cantorial art in: Yidishes tageblat (Jewish daily newspaper) in New York; and Der idisher firer (The Jewish leader) in Boston.  From 1912 until his death, he was the music and theater reviewer for Di idishe velt (The Jewish world) in Cleveland.  In book form: Der harmonye-lerer (The harmony teacher) (St. Louis, 1895), 160 pp.; and in an enlarged edition with several articles from New York and other newspapers (Cleveland, 1918), 181 pp.  He died in Cleveland, Ohio.

Sources: Elyohu Zaludkovski, Kultur-treger fun der yidisher liturgye, historish-byografisher iberblik iber khazones, khazonim un dirizhorn (Culture bearer of Jewish liturgy, historical-biographical survey of the cantorial art, cantors, and conductors) (Detroit, 1930), p. 239; obituary notices in the Yiddish press.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


Sunday, 9 December 2018

R. FRIDMAN


R. FRIDMAN
            He was the author of Ibern brik, ertsehlung (Over the bridge, a story) (Jerusalem, 1979-1980), 132 pp.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 455.


KALMEN FRIDMAN


KALMEN FRIDMAN (b. 1924)
            He was born in Warsaw, Poland.  He studied in religious elementary school and took evening courses.  In 1939 he was confined in the Sokołów ghetto.  He later returned to the Warsaw Ghetto and took part in the uprising in April 1943.  He was deported on the last transport to Majdanek and from there to concentration camps in Germany and Austria.  In 1945 he was liberated.  Until 1948 he lived in camps for survivors, and he was active in the illegal aliya movement to the land of Israel.  From 1948 he was living in the state of Israel and participated in the war of independence.  He began writing poetry in the Nazi camps.  Together with Shame Rozenblum, he published the periodical Lan (Meadow) in 1947.  He later published poems, notations, memoirs, and impressions of Jewish life and struggle in the years of the Holocaust in: Letste nayes (Latest news), Yidishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper), Heymish (Familiar), Yisroel-shtime (Voice of Israel), Folksblat (People’s newspaper), Lebns-fragn (Life issues), Davar (Word), and Al hamishmar (On guard) in Israel; Undzer shtime (Our voice) in Paris; and Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal; among others.  In book form: Lukhes, shirim ureshimes (H. Luḥot, shirim ureshimot, Calendars, poems and lists), including forty poems in Yiddish, twenty-three in Hebrew, and forty-three pages of notations, with an introduction by Dov Sadan (Jerusalem, 1964), 160 pp.  He was last living in Jerusalem and working for the culture wing of the education department of the city.  “These are poems,” wrote Borvin Frenkel, “that follow from the depths of a sorrowful and pained heart.  And, one is touched by their authenticity as one can only be in encountering a poem of the people….  His poems are charged with dreadful truths, with frightful nights and nightmarish experiences.  And, although he does not speak of it in his poems, one senses therein the concentrated universe of Night and Fog, and what he composes is truthful.  His word is justified.  His chastising words are justified.  His sorrow comes from what cannot and will not be forgotten.”

Sources: Dov Sadan, in Yisroel-shtime (Tel Aviv) (April 2, 1964); B. Levinski, in Dorem-afrike (May-June 1964); M. Shenderay, in Idishe tsaytung (Buenos Aires) (July 15, 1964); Borvin Frankel, in Undzer shtime (Paris) (July 24, 1964); Y. Emyot, in Tsukunft (new York) (February 1965).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


KALMEN FRIDMAN


KALMEN FRIDMAN (May 7, 1895-July 8, 1969)
            He was born in Warsaw, Poland.  He studied in religious elementary school and two years in public school, later becoming a laborer.  He was active in the Bund and a member of the central council of trade unions in Poland.  In 1913 he came to the United States and for a time led the weavers’ union in New York.  He published his first poems in Undzer lebn (Our life) in Warsaw (1912).  In America he contributed poetry, short stories, and reportage pieces in: Frayhayt (Freedom), Di naye velt (The new world), Di glaykheyt (Equality), Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture), and Tog (Day) in New York; Idishe arbeter velt (Jewish workers’ world) in Philadelphia; Kunst-fraynd (Friend of art), Kultur (Culture), and Di vokh (The week) in Chicago; and Nay lebn (New life) and Landsmanshaftn (Native-place associations) in Buenos Aires; among others.  He served as editor of Di hofenung (The hope) in New York.  In book form: Lebens-tener, lider un gedikhte (Veins of life, poetry) (New York, 1916), 64 pp.  He died in New York.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; S. D. Levin, in Frayhayt (New York) (May 16, 1948); N. Mayzil, Mayzil, Amerike in yidishn vort (America in Yiddish) (New York, 1955), p. 814.
Khayim Leyb Fuks