Sunday, 21 October 2018


            He translated Ivan Turgenev’s novel Foters un kinder, roman in akhṭ un tsvantsig kapitlen (Fathers and sons, a novel in twenty-eight chapters [original: Ottsy i deti] (New York: M. N. Mayzel, 1921), 297 pp., into Yiddish.  Other information remains unknown.  It appears as though “A. Faynberg” is a pseudonym.
Benyomen Elis


MOYSHE FAYNBLIT (d. July 25, 1947)
            He came from Ukraine.  He lived in Kharkov and Moscow.  He was a writer and translator.  He contributed to the Yiddish press in the Soviet Union.  He died in Moscow.

Source: Obituary notice from the Bureau of Soviet Jewish Writers in Moscow, Eynikeyt (Moscow) (July 29, 1947).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            He was born in Riteve (Rietavas), Lithuania.  He was leader in Mizrachi and a preacher.  In 1906 he became the rabbi in Apaščia, near Kovno, and later in Vladimir-Volinsk (Volodymyr Volyns’kyi), Moscow, and Tver.  After WWI he came to the United States.  In 1928 he became rabbi in Detroit.  He authored religious texts in Hebrew and in Yiddish, among them: Yalkut shmuel (Selections by Shmuel) (St. Louis, 1935), 112 pp., Etan shmuel (Might of Shmuel) (St. Louis, 1934), 112 pp., and Zikhron shmuel (Memory of Samuel) (St. Louis, 1931-1932), in Hebrew; and Fun eybigen kval, erklehrungen af file parshes fun der toyre (From an eternal source, explanations of many portions of the Torah), with a preface by A. L. Gelman (St. Louis, 1933-1935), 96 pp., and Di zikhere veg, beobkhtungen un erklehrungen af file problemen in yudentum (The sure pathway, observations and explanations of many problems in Judaism) (Detroit, 1938), 96 pp., in Yiddish

Source: Ohale shem (The tents of Shem) (Pinsk, 1912).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


YARDENYE FAYN (JORDANA FAIN) (1917-July 8, 1967)
            She was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where she received a secular Jewish and general education.  She graduated from a drama school.  She directed and acted on the Yiddish and the Spanish stage.  From 1936 she published children’s stories and translations in Idishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper), Yugent-vegn (Youth ways), Argentiner beymelekh (Little Argentinian trees), and Der shpigl (The mirror), among others, in Buenos Aires; and Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal.  Two of her children’s stories were included in Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944).  She translated from Spanish: Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, Dos ingl fun karaskal (The boy from Carrascal [original: El niño de Carrascal]) (Buenos Aires, 1941), 32 pp.  She died in Buenos Aires.

Sources: Sh. Rozhanski, Dos yidishe gedrukte vort in argentine (The published Yiddish word in Argentina), vol. 1 (Buenos Aires, 1941), pp. 140, 175, 250; V. Bresler, Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944), p. 921; Pinye Kats, Geklibene shriftn (Selected writings), vol. 7 (Buenos Aires, 1947), p. 164.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


YITSKHOK FAYN (ISAAC M. FEIN) (b. August 18, 1899)
            He was born in Bender, Bessarabia.  He studied in the Herzliya high school in Tel Aviv, graduated from the University of Vienna (Austria), and received his PhD degree from Dropsie College in 1934 for his work on Levi-Yitskhok of Berdichev.  From 1918 he was a teacher in Yiddish and Hebrew schools (in Russia, the United States, and Canada).  From 1923 he was living in America.  For a time he worked as principal of the Perets School in Winnipeg, Canada.  From 1940 he was professor of Jewish history at Baltimore Hebrew College.  From 1960 he was curator of the Jewish historical society of Maryland.  He published articles of a scholarly historical character in: Tsukunft (Future), Yidishe dertsiung (Jewish education), Yivo-bleter (Pages from YIVO), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), and Tog (Day) in New York; Hainukh haivri betefutsot hagola (Hebrew education in the diaspora), Entsiklopediya haivrit (Hebrew encyclopedia), and Encyclopedia Britannica; and the journals and anthologies of the America Jewish historical society; among others.  His series of travel writings from the Soviet Union, published in the journal Idisher kemfer in New York (1966), aroused considerable attention.  He was last living in Baltimore.  Among his books: The Making of as American Jewish Community: The History of Baltimore Jewry from 1773 to 1920 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1971; second edition, 1985), 348 pp.; Boston, Where It All Began: An Historical Perspective on the Boston Jewish Community (Boston, 1976), 83 pp.

Sources: Yivo-biblyografye, 1925-1941 (YIVO bibliography, 1925-1941) (New York, 1943), see index; Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (February 16, 1964).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 440.]


            He was born in a town near Vilna, Lithuania.  He studied in yeshivas.  From 1900 he was living in London.  He was active in the socialist and trade union movement, in London’s Workmen’s Circle, and the like.  For many years he represented the Jewish poor on London’s city council.  He served as vice-president of the English division of the World Jewish Congress, among other positions.  From 1920 he was the London correspondent for Forverts (Forward) in New York.  He also contributed to such serials as: Di tsayt (The times) and Yidish loshn (Yiddish language) in London.

Sources: Biblyografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Bibliographic yearbooks from YIVO) (Warsaw, 1928), see index; Forverts (New York) (November 3, 1934); Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (December 1958); M. Mindel, in Di idishe shtime (London) (July 5, 1963).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

Saturday, 20 October 2018


YONI FAYN (JONI FAIN) (b. May 3, 1914)
            He was born in Kamenets-Podolsk, Ukraine.  In 1924 he moved with his family to Vilna.  He graduated from a Jewish school and secular high school, as well as from the art department of the University of Vilna.  From 1936 he was in Warsaw and spent the war years in Shanghai.  In 1947 he came to Mexico City, where he was a teacher in the Jewish school.  From 1956 he was living in New York, where he was professor of art at Hofstra University.  He had numerous presentations of his works which for the most part were of Holocaust motifs.  He began writing poetry for Y. Rapaport’s Unzer vort (Our word) in Shanghai.  In later years he published poems in: Tsukunft (Future) in New York; Di goldene keyt (The golden chain) in Tel Aviv; and Unzer tsayt (Our time) in New York; among others.  In book form: A tlie unter di shtern (A gallows under the stars) (Mexico City, 1947), 206 pp.; Gute orkhim, lider (Good neighbors, poetry) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1983), 168 pp.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 440.


ELYE-MEYER FAYVELZON (January 21, 1868-January 20, 1928)
            He was born in Kupishok (Kupiskis), Kovno district, Lithuania.  He was the rabbi of Kupishok until his death.  He was a cofounder of the worldwide Agudat Yisrael in Katovits (Katowice) and one of the initiators of an Orthodox press in Hebrew and in Yiddish.  He published articles on Jewish issues, education, and the settlement in the land of Israel in: Hapeles (The balance), Halevanon (The Lebanon), Hapisga (The summit), Haderekh (The road), Shaare-tsiyon (Gates of Zion), and Der idisher lebn (The Jewish life) in Telz, and Dos vort (The world) in Vilna, among others.  He died in Kupishok.

Sources: Ohale shem (The tents of Shem) (Pinsk, 1912), p. 177; M. Y. Glaykher, in Dos idishe vort (New York) (Adar 12 [= February 14], 1965).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

Friday, 19 October 2018


            He was born in Nidoki (Lyduokiai), Vilkomir (Ukmergė) district, Lithuania.  Until age twenty he studied in yeshivas, later becoming a follower of the Jewish Enlightenment.  He graduated from a Russian high school as an external student in Vilna and for a time was a teacher of Russian in religious elementary schools.  He was the author of an assortment of textbooks in Judeo-German and Hebrew for teaching Russian, such as: Oytser loshn rusya (Treasury of the Russian language), “translated into the Hebrew language and the language of Ashkenaz and Judeo-German,” with a Russian dictionary including 7,000 words (Vilna, 1874), 126 pp. and a preface of 18 pp.; Der kinder lerer fir di rusishe shprakhe (The children’s teacher for the Russian language), with a short Russian-Yiddish dictionary and a number of fables taken from Krylov (Vilna, 1877), 100 pp.  He was also the author of letter-writing manuals, among them: Mikhtav meshulash (Triple letter), in three languages (Russian, Hebrew, and Judeo-German) (Vilna, 1873), 186 pp., adapted from Katav yosher (Honest writing) and M. Nayman’s letter-writing manuals.  Well-known among his textbooks for learning Hebrew: Dikduk lashon ever bederekh ketsara (Hebrew grammar in short order), in Judeo-German (Vilna, 1874), 136 pp.  He contributed work to Hamagid (The preacher) in Lik, Hamelits (The advocate) in Odessa, and Hatsfira (The siren) in Warsaw, in which he published articles on education and translations from Russian literature under the pen names Nash and Neshef.  Due to an error in the bibliography in Fridberg’s Bet eked sefarim (Library), he was confused with Sh. Sh. F. (Shafan the Scribe, 1838-1922), whose uncles was Natole-Shrage Faygenzon.

Sources: Dr. A. Freyman, in Hebraesche Bibliographie (Frankfurt, 1918), p. 38; Sh. Bastomski, in Di naye shul (Warsaw) 1 (1923), p. 50; A. R. Malachi, Otsar haleksikografiya haivrit (Treasury of Hebrew lexicography) (New York, 1955), p. 24; D. H., in Hasefer (Jerusalem) (1964/1965), pp. 50-51.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            He came from a town near Vilkomir (Ukmergė), Lithuania.  He attended religious elementary school, yeshivas, and later was an external student.  In 1881 he came to the United States and studied to become a medical doctor.  From 1889 he was a well-known doctor on New York’s Lower East Side.  For many years he worked in Montefiore Hospital and the Deborah Orphanage.  He was among the first doctors to write articles on medical topics in the Yiddish press.  He contributed for many years to: Yidisher tageblat (Jewish daily newspaper) and the weekly Idishe gazeten (Jewish gazette), among others, in New York.  He was the author of books and pamphlets concerning medicine, among them: Kleyne mashkhitimlekh, vos darfn mir visn vegn di mikrobn? (Little destroyers, what should we know about microbes?) (New York, 1896), 128 pp.; and Di role fun di tseyn (The role of the teeth) (New York, 1902), 36 pp.

Sources: Following the Weiner Collection at Harvard University; preface to Kleyne mashkhitimlekh (Little destroyers) (New York, 1896); preface to Di role fun de tseyn (The role of the teeth) (New York, 1902).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


ROKHL FAYGENBERG (RAEL OMRI) (1885-June 5, 1972)
            She was born in Luban (Lyuban’), Minsk district, Byelorussia.  Her father, Ber, a great scholar, a mystic, and a Talmud teacher, died young.  Supervision for her education fell into the hands of her mother, Sore, née Epshteyn, a niece of Zalmen Epshteyn.  Also influential in her upbringing was her grandfather, a rabbi.  She studied Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian until age twelve.  She had to run their store, but she still managed to read a great many books.  Impressed by several novels by Shomer [N. M. Shaykevitsh], she composed her own novel called “Yozef un roze” (Joseph and Rosa), but she soon tore up the manuscript.  At age fifteen, now an orphan on both sides, she moved to Odessa and for four years she worked in a salon for women’s clothing.  At that time she wrote her first story, “Di kinder-yorn” (Childhood), which was published in the monthly Dos naye lebn (The new life) in 1905.  Over the years 1911-1912, she studied in Lausanne (Switzerland) and was later a teacher in Volhynia.  Throughout all this time, she wrote and published stories and sketches in: Fraynd (Friend), Haynt (Today), Eyropeishe literatur (European literature), and Bobroysker vokhnblat (Bobruisk weekly newspaper), among others.  Among her other writings at this time, she penned a dramatic study entitled “Kursistkes” ([Female] students), a long story “Tsvey veltn” (Two worlds)—in Unzer lebn (Our life) (1910), published in 1911 in book form in Warsaw as A mame (A mother)—a novel entitled Tekhter (Sister) which was published serially in Moment (Moment) in Warsaw (1913), and the first part of her book Af fremde vegn (Along foreign pathways).  She survived the Ukrainian pogroms of 1919.  She then renewed her literary work and translated for a planned “Universal Library.”  In 1921 she left Ukraine and settled initially in Kishinev and later in Bucharest.  She then went to work on a rich collection of materials on the pogroms, to which she contributed from Ukraine.  She published these materials in: Der yud (The Jew) in Kishinev; Forverts (Forward) and Tog (Day) in New York; and Haynt in Warsaw; among others.  She also published in the Romanian newspaper Mantureo.  From Romania she moved to Warsaw, and in 1924 she made aliya to the land of Israel.  From there she was a correspondent for Moment.  She contributed to Hebrew-language publications—Haarets (The land), Davar (Word), Haolam (The world), and Kuntres (Pamphlet)—her articles initially translated from Yiddish into Hebrew.  She later mastered the Hebrew language and eventually carved out for herself a distinctive style.  In 1926 she came back to Poland for a time, later living in Paris where she helped assemble materials for the defense of Shalom Schwartzbard (her work, A pinkes fun a toyter shtot, khurbn dubove [A record of a dead city, the destruction of Dubove (Warsaw, 1926)], was translated at the time into French).  She translated three volumes from the writings of the late Russian-Jewish writer Semyon Yushkevitsh.  In 1933 she returned to Israel.  There she founded the publishing house Measef (Collection), which set as its task to publish Hebrew translations from Yiddish literature.  Three volumes of translation (by Dovid Bergelson, Y. Y. Zinger, and Moyshe Kulbak) appeared from this press.  Aside from her novels, she published in Hebrew a number of folk stories.  Some of them were published with vowel pointing, so that new immigrants could more easily understand them.  In addition to the Hebrew press, she contributed as well to: Di goldene keyt (The golden chain) and Letste nayes (Latest news) in Tel Aviv.  In 1965 she was awarded the aim Grinberg Prize from the Pioneer Women’s Organization for 1964-1965.  She wrote primarily in Hebrew after settling in Israel and under the Hebraized name Raḥel Omri.  Her books would include: Di kinder-yorn (Warsaw, 1909), 155 pp.; A mame (Warsaw, 1911), 56 pp.; Af fremde vegn (Warsaw, 1925), 310 pp.; a four-act play, Hefker-mentshn (Derelicts), published in Tsukunft (Future) (New York) 6-9 (1924), staged by R. Zaslavski in Vilna’s “Jewish Folk Theater” in November 1927 under the title “Tekhter”; A pinkes fun a toyter shtot, khurbn dubove (Warsaw, 1926), 148 pp.; Af di bregn fun dnyester (On the shores of the Dniester) (Warsaw, 1925), 160 pp.—the latter two volumes were translated into French by Moïse Twersky; Heyrat af tsvey yor, roman (Marriage for two years, a novel) (Warsaw, 1932), 261 pp.; Di velt vil mir zoln zayn yidn (The world wants us to be Jews) (Warsaw, 1936), 71 pp.; Susato shel mendele veshot hayidishaim (Mendele’s nag and the scourge of the Yiddishists) (Tel Aviv, 1950), 36 pp.; Megilot yehude rusia, tarsa-tashkad (The scrolls of the Jews of Russia, 1905-1964) (Jerusalem, 1965), 463 pp. (including five volumes of which Faygenberg herself translated three from Yiddish; one volume, Dapim bemegilat krivoye ozero (Pages from the scroll of Lake Krivoye) which she composed originally in Hebrew, and the fifth volume was translated by Sh. Droyanov); Yidish vesofreha (Yiddish and its literature) (Tel Aviv: Zeman, 1967), 32 pp.  She died in Tel Aviv.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; Kh. D. Hurvits, in Yidishe literatur (Yiddish literature) (Kiev, 1928), part 1; Shmuel Niger, in Tog (New York) (April 30, 1932); Rokhl Oyerbakh, in Pyonern-froy (New York) (September-October 1954); Y. Likhtnboym, Hasipur haivri (The Hebrew story) (Tel Aviv, 1955); Meylekh Ravitsh, Mayn leksikon (My lexicon), vol. 3 (Montreal, 1958); Ravitsh, in Heymish (Tel Aviv) (February-March 1960; December 1960); E. Almi, in Fraye arbiter-shtime (New York) (October 15, 1960); Pinkas slutsk uvenoteha (Records of Slutsk and its children) (New York-Tel Aviv, 1961); D. Khanun, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (September 17, 1965); A. Volf-Yasni, in Letste nayes (November 12, 1965); G. Kressel, Leksikon hasifrut haivrit badorot haaḥaronim (Handbook of modern Hebrew literature), vol. 1 (Tel Aviv, 1965); Y. Emyot, in Tsukunft (New York) (February 1966); Dr. Shloyme Bikl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (April 3, 1966); Yefim Yeshurin, 100 yor moderne yidishe literatur, bibliografisher tsushteyer (100 years of modern Yiddish literature, bibliographical contribution) (New York, 1966).
Yekhiel Hirshhoyt

 [Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 440.]

Thursday, 18 October 2018


            He was born in Grodno, Poland, into a commercial family.  He received a traditional secular education.  He studied medicine in Munich, Germany, and completed his studies in Dorpat, Estonia, in 1915.  He worked as a military doctor in Russia, and from 1920 in Poland.  He worked as the school doctor for a string of Yiddish and Hebrew educational institutions and was a member of the executive committee of the Jewish doctors’ association in Vilna.  He published a number of articles on medical topics in Vilna’s Folks-gezunt (People’s health) and Warsaw’s Sotsyale meditsin (Social medicine), among them a series of pieces on the “Shvester shul” (Nursing school in Vilna).  He published the pamphlets: Vegn verem un gaytsn bay mentshn (On worms and tapeworms with people) (Vilna: OZE, 1924), 20 pp.; Di ershte hilf in umgliklekhe tsufaln (First aid in unfortunate cases) (Warsaw: TOZ, 1925), 25 pp., later edition (Vilna, 1929); Vegn aynshpritsn kinder kegn skarlatin un difterit (On injecting children against scarlet fever and diphtheria) (Vilna: OZE, 1932).
Leyzer Ran


            She was born in Vilna, Lithuania.  At age fourteen she was confined in the ghetto that the Nazis instituted after occupying Vilna in WWII.  She studied in a ghetto school.  She was later deported to Estonian and German concentration camps.  In 1947 she made aliya to the land of Israel on the vessel Exodus.  She continued to live in the state of Israel.  Her three poems—“Aleyn in der fremd” (Alone abroad), “S’iz 5 minut tsu tsvelf” (It’s five minutes to twelve), and “Psure fun nekhome” (Message of solace)—were included in Shmerke Katsherginski’s Lider fun di getos un lagern (Songs from the ghettos and camps) (New York, 1948).

Source: Shmerke Katsherginski, Lider fun di getos un lagern (Songs from the ghettos and camps) (New York, 1948), pp. 280.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            She was born in Vilna, Lithuania, the daughter of pediatrician Yankev Feygenberg.  She was a graduate of the Gurevitsh high school and a member of the youth writers’ group (in the late 1930s) “Yungvald” (Young forest).  She published a number of her poems in the journal Yungvald in Vilna (1939).  She served as an officer in the Soviet army during WWII.  She was last living in the Soviet Union.

Sources: Leyzer Ran, 25 yor yung vilne (Twenty-five years of Young Vilna) (New York, 1955); “Der finfter yungvald” (The fifth “Young Forest”), celebratory work.
Leyzer Ran


            He was born in Biała Podlaska, Lublin district, Poland.  He studied in religious elementary schools and completed a course of study in bookkeeping in a commercial school.  During WWII he was confined in the ghettoes of Biała and Mezritsh (Międzyrzecz).  In December 1942 he was led out along with all the camp laborers in Biała to be shot, and he fled from the execution place.  In May 1943 he was deported from the Międzyrzecz ghetto to Treblinka.  He leapt from the train car, returned to Biała, and until the war’s end hid out in a bunker, where he wrote about Jewish life under the Nazis.  He was among the first to bring materials from the Nazi era to the central historical commission in Lublin.  Russian Jewish officers who saw his bunker writings informed Ilya Ehrenburg, and the latter asked him to send the materials for the Black Book being prepared on German persecutions.  In late 1945 he arrived in Munich, Germany, and founded the central historical commission and served as its director until its liquidation.  In 1949 he made aliya to the state of Israel.  He contributed work to: Podlyaser lebn (Podlasie life) and Byaler vokhnblat (Biała weekly newspaper).  In book form: Podlyashe in umkum, noṭitsn fun khurbn (Podlasie destroyed, notices and destruction), preface by Dr. M. Weinreich (Munich, 1948), 355 pp.; Podlyashe in natsi-klem, notitsn un khurbn (Podlasie in the claws of the Nazis, notices and destruction) (Buenos Aires, 1953), 241 pp.  In 1942 he edited and published in Tel Aviv: Sefer byala-podlaska (Volume for Biała Podlaska), 501 pp., using the pseudonym “Byalski.”  He died in Ramat-Yitsḥak.

Sources: Y. Spartan, in Bafrayung (Munich) (November 12, 1948); Alegorye, in Loshn un lebn (London) (February 1949); Libe Sh. Davidovitsh, in Tsukunft (New York) (March 1950); D. Volpe, in Dorem-afrike (Johannesburg) (February 1954); Y. Shmulevitsh, in Forverts (New York) (October 1961); Y. Gar and F. Fridman, Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York, 1962).
Yankev Kahan


MOYSHE FEYGENBOYM (1893-February 24, 1921)
            He was born in Mezritsh (Międzyrzecz), Poland, into a very poor family.  He attended yeshivas and acquired a name as a prodigy.  In the years of WWI, he settled in Demblin (Dęblin) and supported himself with a small shop.  He was a cofounder of the young Orthodox Jewish writers’ group and was considered among the promising Jewish prose writers in Poland.  He debuted in print with a lyrical work of mood and impression in Dos yudishe vort (The Yiddish word) in Warsaw (1916).  Later, until his death, he was a contributor to Der yud (The Jew), in which he published sketches, stories, and scenes of Jewish town life, including “A shtetl” (A town), a poem in prose about Jews of the Torah.  He was seized in early 1921 by followers of Bałachowicz and from the experience became ill.  He died of tuberculosis in Dęblin.  In Di antologye fun religyeze lider un dertseylungen (The anthology of religious poetry and stories), ed. Moyshe Prager (New York, 1955), pp. 231-312, several of his stories and one-act plays appear in print.  A selection of his stories was published in Hebrew (translated by A. Broyner) under the title Bishvili polan (For Poland) (Jerusalem, 1955), 117 pp.

Sources: Y. Y. Trunk, Antologye fun der yidisher proze in poyln tsvishn di tsvey velt-milkhomes (Anthology of Yiddish prose in Poland between the two world wars) (New York, 1946), p. 12; Arn Tsaytlin, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (October 15, 1954; March 25, 1955); Pinkhes Bizberg, Kunst-album (Art album) (Buenos Aires, 1947); Moyshe Prager, in Fun noentn over (New York) 2 (1956), pp. 455-56; Prager, ed., Di antologye fun religyeze lider un dertseylungen (The anthology of religious poetry and stories) (New York, 1955), pp. 231-312.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


BENYOMEN FEYGENBOYM (BENJAMIN FEIGENBAUM) (August 12, 1860-November 10, 1932)
            He true first name was Simkhe-Bunem, and he was born in Warsaw into a Hassidic family.  Raised in the Hassidic spirit, at age twenty-two he left it behind and began agitating among the yeshiva lads for the Jewish Enlightenment and education.  In 1884 he left home for Antwerp and became active in the local socialist movement.  He began writing for the Flemish organ of the Belgian socialist workers’ party, De werker (The worker).  He took part in the struggle between socialists and anarchists, and he began writing in Yiddish with correspondence pieces in Yudisher folksblat (Jewish people’s newspaper) in St. Petersburg (1886).  At the same time, he was also contributing to Hamagid (The preacher) and Hayom (Today).  At Krants’s invitation (Arbeter fraynd [Workers’ friend]), he moved to England.  He lived for two years in London and Manchester, and he quickly became popular as an agitator, speaker, and socialist writer.  He organized workers in the regional cities.  In the spring of 1891, he began sending in “Brief fun mayrev leyam” (Letters from overseas), using the pen name “Der royter idl” (The little red Jew), to Arbeter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) in New York.  His socialist pamphlets, published in London—such as Geule, oder di idishe hilf, vi azoy kumt a id tsu sotsyalizmus (Redemption, or Jewish relief, how a Jew comes to socialism)—gave him a name in the United States.  These pamphlets were also distributed illegally in Poland and Lithuania.  In July 1891 he came to New York at the invitation of the socialist weekly Arbayter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) and was received by Jewish laborers with great enthusiasm.  Over the years 1900-1903, he served as the first secretary general of the Workmen’s Circle.  From the founding of Forverts (Forward) in New York, he became tied up with this newspaper as one of its most important contributors.  As one of the first popularizers of scientific socialism in Yiddish, he was primarily known for his struggle against the Jewish religion, traditional Judaism, and Zionism.  As a fierce cosmopolitan and opponent of ethnic Jewish movements, he also fought against the Bund and contributed to Yiddish publications of the Polish Socialist Party.  He thus made strong use of his learning and proficiency in Jewish religious literature in his controversy with Forverts; for a time he wrote for Morgn zhurnal (Morning journal) in New York and later returned to Forverts.  In the latter he published a series of explanatory articles, also in Tsukunft (Future) in New York (of which he was editor in 1903) and elsewhere.  Together with A. Lyesin and O’Neal, he wrote essays on selected writings in Yiddish by Eugene V. Debs (New York: Veker, 1927).  In his last years, he withdrew from activist work due to illness.  Among his pseudonyms: Shabes, Shabsovitsh, and Sh. Peshes.  His books would include: Di sotsyalistishe hagode shel peysekh (The socialist Passover Hagada) (London: Berner Street Club, ca. 1888) (the first half was the work of L. Zolotkof); free translation and adaptation of Johann Joseph Most, Die Eigenthums-Bestie (The property beast) (London: Workers’ Press, 1888), 31 pp.; Vi kumt a yud tsu sotsyalizmus? (How does a Jew come to socialism?) (London: Knights of Liberty of England and America, 1889), 31 pp.; Elishe ben avuye (Elisha ben Avuya) (London: B. Ruderman, 188?), 18 pp.; Dos gezets der antṿiklung, oder der natirlikher sod fun mayse breyshes (The law of evolution, or the natural secret of the story of creation) (London, 1890), 48 pp.; Farshidene tsores (Various problems) (1892); Di geule oder vos iz di make un vos iz di refue? (The redemption or what is the scourge and what is the cure?) (New York, 1893), 48 pp.; Geld, gold un zilber, der a״b fun di geld-frage (Money, gold and silver, the ABCs of the question of money) (New York, 1896), 32 pp.; Dos gan-eydn hatakhtn (The earthly paradise) (New York, 1896), 31 pp.; Di hefḳer velṭ, un vi men ken fun ihr poter vern (The lawless world, and how one can be rid of it) (New York, 1897), 34 pp.; Darvinizmus oder darvin hot getrofn (Darwinism or Darwin hit upon it) (Warsaw: Progres, 1901), 30 pp.; Shteyner vos faln fun himl, a populere erklehrung vegn meteoriten, shṭernshnupfen un ḳomeṭen (Rocks that fall from the sky, a popular explanation of meteors, shooting stars, and comets) (Warsaw: Progres, 1901), 30 pp.; Der rambam, rabeynu moyshe ben maymun (maymonides), zayn lebn un zayne oyfthuungen far iden un far di velt (The Rambam, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, Maimonides, his life and his accomplishments for Jews and for the world) (New York, 1903), 31 pp.; Liebe un familyen-leben loyt yidishkeyt (Love and family life according to Jews) (New York, 1904), 71 pp.; Yomud, arbayṭer! ṿos di sotsyalisṭishe parṭey vil oyfthun (Stand up, workers! What the Socialist Party wishes to accomplish) (Chicago: Socialist Party in America, 1904?), 31 pp.; Der rekhter veg, a vikuekh vegen di poylishe sotsyalisṭishe partey un ihre foderungen (The right path, a debate concerning the Polish Socialist Party and its demands) (Lemberg, 1905); Di idishe inkvizitsye kedas rakhmonim bney rakhmonim (The Jewish inquisition according to the laws of the Jewish people) (Leeds, 1906), 100 pp.; Fun vanen shtamen di hayntige iden? oder, idishe melukhes in rusland un arabyen (Where do today’s Jews come from? Or, Jewish states in Russia and Arabia) (London: The Radical Publishing Company, 1907), 39 pp., second edition (London: B. Ruderman, 1910); Ver hot ayngefirt yom kipper, un fun vanen shtamt di toyre (Who instituted [the custom of] Yom Kippur, and where did the Torah come from), third edition (London: Frayhayt, 1907), 20 pp.; Khivi habalkhi, lebens-beshraybungen fun idishe fraydeynker fun di eltste tsaytn on (Ḥiwi al-Balkhi, lives of Jewish freethinkers from ancient times forward) (London: B. Ruderman, 191?), 20 pp.; Vashington, a beshraybung fun dzhordzh vashington, der ershter prezident in amerika (Washington, a description of George Washington, the first president of America) (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1907), 114 pp.; Tsu vos toyg teater (What good is theater) (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company, 1909), 16 pp.; Kosher un treyfe un andere mitsves (Kosher and non-kosher and other commandments) (New York, 1909), 307 pp., second enlarged edition (New York: Forverts, 1919), 314 pp.; translation of August Bebel, Di froy un der sotsyalizmus (Women and socialism [original: Die Frau und der Sozialismus]) (New York: Forverts, 1911), 773 pp., second edition (New York: Forverts, 1916); Idishkeyt un sotsyalizmus, in tsvey teyln (Jewishness and socialism, in two parts) (New York, 1914), 130 pp.; free translation with notes of Friedrich Engels, Di familye, amol un haynt (The family, then and now [original: Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats (The origins of the family, private property and the state)]) (New York: Forverts, 1918), 353 pp.; Zayt ir a sotsyalist? (Are you a socialist?) (New York: Veker, n.d.), 8 pp.; A hagdome fir sotsyalistn (A preface for socialists) (New York: Social-Democratic Party, n.d.), 32 pp.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; K. Frumin, in Tsukunft (New York) (February 1904); Dr. A. Ginzburg, in Tsukunft (July 1904); A. Litvin, in Tsukunft (October 1904); F. Krants, in Tsukunft (December 1904); Y. A. Hurvitsh, in Tsukunft (March 1908; April 1908); Dr. Hofman, in Tsukunft (June 1908); Bal-Makhshoves, in Populer-visnshaftlekhe literatur (Popular scientific literature), vol. 2 (Vilna, 1910), pp. 76-83; Tsvien, in Tsukunft (July 1911); A. Sh. Zaks, in Tsukunft (July 1912); Zaks, Di geshikhte fun arbeter-ring, 1892-1925 (History of the Workmen’s Circle, 1892-1925) (New York, 1925); Zaks, in Forverts (New York) (November 14, 1932); Y. Milts, in Tsukunft (January 1912); D. Tirkl, in Pinkes (New York) 1 (1927-1928), p. 260; D. Sh. Bernshteyn, Beazon hadorot (In the vision of the generations) (New York, 1928), p. 124; H. Lang, in Tsukunft (September 1930); Shmuel Niger, in Tog (New York) (July 10, 1932); Niger, in Tsukunft (June 1940); L. Kobrin, in Tog (November 11, 1932); Ab. Kahan, in Forverts (November 11, 1932); Kahan, Bleter fun mayn lebn (Pages from my life), vol. 3 (Vilna, 1928), p. 229, vol. 4 (Vilna, 1929), pp. 465-66, 601; Y. Y. Zinger, in Forverts (November 12, 1932); L. Finkelshteyn, in Tog (November 12, 1932); M. Ivenskii, in Veker (New York) (December 10, 1932); A. Lyesin, in Tsukunft (December 1932); Moyshe Shtarkman, in Yivo-bleter (Vilna) 4 (1932), pp. 354-87; Shtarkman, in Tsukunft (May-June 1942; November-December 1962); Shtarkman, in Yorbukh fun yidishn bikher-rat (Yearbook of the Jewish book council) (New York, 1942/1943); Shtarkman, in Hadoar (New York) (May 23, 1947); A. Frumkin, In friling fun yidishn sotsyalizm (In the spring of Jewish socialism) (New York, 1940); Y. Kheykin, in Yorbukh (New York) (1944/1945); Elye (Elias) Shulman, Geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur in amerike (History of Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1943), pp. 64, 72-73; A. Litvak, Geklibene shriftn (Selected writings) (New York, 1945), pp. 435-38; M. Osherovitsh, Di geshikhte fun “forverts”, 1897-1947 (History of the Forward, 1897-1947) (New York, 195?), pp. 43-56; Y. Sh. Herts, 50 yor arbeter ring (Fifty years of the Workmen’s Circle) (New York, 1950); H. Vigderson, in Forverts (August 10, 1952); B. Tsukerman, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (1961/1962); Arbeter-ring boyer un tuer (Builders and leaders of the Workmen’s Circle), ed. Y. Yeshurin and Y. Sh. Herts (New York, 1962), pp. 312-13; D. Shub, in Forverts (May 10, 1964; May 17, 1964); H. Rogof, Der nayes fun forverts (The news from the Forverts) (New York, 1954).
Leyb Vaserman

Tuesday, 16 October 2018


Y. FEYGEL (1897-June 23, 1941)
            He was born in Rovne (Rovno), Volynia.  Until 1931 he was a community leader, journalist, and editor in Rovno, later until 1941 in Vilna.  He edited the thrice weekly newspaper Voliner vokh (Volynian week) which appeared 1924-1926 and of the weekly newspaper Voliner lebn (Volhynian life) (1927-1930).  He served as a correspondent from Volhynia for Moment (Moment) in Warsaw.  Over the years 1931-1939, he contributed work to Vilner tog (Vilna day), and later, until Soviet rule kicked in, of Vilner nayes (Vilna news).  At the time of the Nazi assault on Vilna, he was allowed to go to the Soviet border, and the local farmers shot him there at the time.

Sources: Biblyografishe yorbikher fun yivo (Bibliographic yearbooks from YIVO) (Warsaw, 1928), see index; Rovna, sefer zikaron (Rovno, remembrance volume) (Tel Aviv, 1956), pp. 263-64.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


SHMUEL-YITSKHOK FEYGIN (SAMUEL I. FEIGIN) (May 13, 1893-March 31, 1950)
            He was born in Gritshev (Krychaw? Grichevo?), Russia.  In 1912 he made aliya to the land of Israel.  He studied in the Ezra Teachers’ Seminary in Jerusalem.  He was for a time secretary to Yekhiel-Mikhel Pines.  During the years of WWI, he served as an officer in the Turkish army.  He arrived in the United States in 1920.  He studied Semitics at Yale University and received his doctorate in 1923.  Over the years 1923-1930, he worked as a Hebrew teacher in the Hebrew Teachers’ Seminary in Pittsburgh.  In 1932 he began working in the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, and there he contributed to preparing the dictionary of Assyrian.  At the same time (1934), he was a professor of Semitics at the Jewish Theological Seminary in Chicago and a teacher of Jewish history and biblical literature in the Department of Jewish Studies.  Feygin published his first work on Assyrian in Hashiloa (The shiloah), edited by Joseph Klausner.  He contributed research works, essays, reviews, and treatments as well to: Hadoar (The mail), Bitsaron (Fortress), Tsukunft (Future), Shikago (Chicago), and Sefer hashana leyehude amerika (American Jewish annual).  He also published in Anglophone scholarly journals.  As a specialist in ancient history, Feygin wrote solid works of research on Tanakh, the Hebrew language, Ugaritic, and Assyrian, and longer essays on such well-known writers as David Yelin, Adler, Levi Gintsburg, Aad-Ha’am, and others. Among the more important articles that he published in Yiddish were the treatments of: Shimon Dubnov’s Weltgeschichte des Jüdischen Volkes (The world history of the Jewish people) in Tsukunft (1930, 1932, 1933, 1934); Klausner’s history of the Second Temple in Tsukunft (1930); and Bernfeld’s work on Tanakh in Tsukunft (1930); as well as a discussion with Zelig Kalmanovitsh, “Visnshaftlekhe metodn in natsyonale opshatsung” (Scholarly methods in ethnic judgment), in Tsukunft (1934).  In Hebrew he brought out two books: Misitre haavar, meḥkarim bemikra uvehistoriya atika (Mysteries of the past, studies in the Bible and ancient history) (New York, 1943), 450 pp., for which he received the Louis Lamed Prize; and Anshe sefer, ḥokrim vesofrim (People of the book, scholars and authors) (New York, 1950), 483 pp., which included, among other items, his writings about Avrom Lyesin, Yoyne Spivak, and Yitskhok Ribkind.  He died in Chicago.

Sources: Yefim Yeshurin, in Tsukunft (New York) (May-June 1942), p. 350; Yeshurin, 100 yor moderne yidishe literatur, bibliografisher tsushteyer (100 years of modern Yiddish literature, bibliographical contribution) (New York, 1966), p. 191; Y. K. Miklishanski, in Algemeyne entsiklopedye (General encyclopedia), “Yidn 5” (New York, 1959), p. 159; Miklishanski, Toldot hasifrut haivrit baamerika (History of Hebrew literature in America) (New York: Ogen, 1967), pp. 319-20; Yehuda Rozental, Kitve dr. shemuel y. feigin zal, reshima bibliyografit (The writings of Dr. Shmuel I. Feigin, may his memory be for a blessing, bibliographic listing) (Chicago, 1951/1952), 23 pp.; Moyshe Shtarkman, in Tog (New York) (June 13, 1943; January 9, 1950); obituary notices in the Hebrew press; American Jewish Yearbook (New York) 52 (1951), p. 501.
Elye (Elias) Shulman

Monday, 15 October 2018


LEYB FEYGIN (1872-January 21, 1944)
            He was born in Minsk, Byelorussia.  He became a laborer in his youth.  He was active in the Bund and was deported for five years to Siberia.  In 1904 he fled to the United States and was involved with the Workmen’s Circle, in the Jewish Ethical Society, and other groups.  He published stories in Fraye arbiter-shtime (Free voice of Labor) and Yidishe shriftn (Yiddish writings) in New York.  For his essay, “Farvos bin ikh avek fun der alter heym” (Why I left the old country), he received an award in 1942 from YIVO.  He died in New York.

Source: Yidishe shriftn (New York) 4.1-2 (1944).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


KHAYIM FEYGIN (January 25, 1890)
            He was born in Klimovitsi (Klimavichy), Mohilev district, Byelorussia.  He studied in religious elementary school and yeshiva.  In 1914 he graduated from the St. Petersburg Agronomical Institute.  In 1916 he left for Denmark where he worked in a milk cooperative.  He returned to St. Petersburg after the February Revolution.  From his youth, he was involved in various Zionist activities, and he belonged to the Labor Zionists.  In 1920 he was appointed leader of the agricultural division of ORT (Association for the Promotion of Skilled Trades) for Northwest Russia.  In 1923 he made aliya to the land of Israel.  For a time he worked at Maariv near Petaḥ Tikva and at Mikve Yisrael.  In 1928 he was sent by ORT to Romania, where he was active in all wings of Jewish agriculture and at the same time was in charge of the Labor Zionists.  He contributed to Yiddish newspapers in Bessarabia, among them: Farn folk (For the people), the Zionist organ out of Minsk (1920), Unzer tsayt (Our time), Dos kooperative vort (The cooperative word), Hasade (The field), and similar Yiddish and Hebrew periodicals.  He was last living in the state of Israel.

Source: David Tidhar, Entsiklopedyah lealutse hayishuv uvonav (Encyclopedia of the pioneers and builders of the yishuv), vol. 3 (Tel Aviv, 1949), pp. 1144-45.
Yankev Kahan


            He was born in Bialystok.  He studied secular subject matter and focused on literature.  He published in Hamagid (The preacher) a letter by Avrom-Ber Gotlober and Igrot mehalalel (Letters of the Mehalalel).  In 1899 he settled in St. Petersburg and became a contributor to Hamelits (The advocate) and Tog (Day).  He wrote articles, feature pieces, and poetry, using the pen names Azriel, Hagafni, and Elitsafan.  He also contributed work to Fraynd (Friend) and was in charge of the legal section of Veg (Way) and Hazman (The times).  His work appeared in: Haynt (Today) and Moment (Moment) in Warsaw and in Tageblat (Daily newspaper) in Bialystok in 1914.  In 1911 he published Shirim nivarim (Selected poems) of Abba Constantin Shapiro (Warsaw: Tushiya, 1911), 131 pp.  In 1917 he departed for Vladimirtsov, later moving to Harbin, where in 1920 he and Kirzhnitsn founded the first Yiddish newspaper in China, Der vayter mizrekh (The Far East).  During the Nazi occupation, he was killed in the Bialystok ghetto.

Sources: Jubilee issue of Dos naye lebn (Bialystok) (April 4, 1919); Byalistoker almanakh (Bialystok almanac) (Bialystok, 1931); Byalistoker leksikon (Bialystok biographical dictionary) (Bialystok, 1935); A. Sh. Hershberg, in Pinkes byalistok (New York) 1 (1949), p. 422; Byalistoker bilder album (Bialystok photo album) (New York, 1951), p. 96; Ber Mark, Der oyfshtand in byalistoker geto (The uprising in the Bialystok ghetto) (Warsaw, 1950), p. 141.
Yankev Kahan


BEN-TSIEN FEYGIN (BEN ZION FAIGON) (February 28, 1881-1934)
            He was born in Lekhevits (Lakhve, Lyakhivtsi), Volhynia.  In his youth he was a teacher in a variety of Volhynian towns.  In 1910 he made his way to Argentina, where for years he worked as a Hebrew teacher in YIKO (Jewish Cultural Organization) schools in Entre Rios, Rosario, and later Buenos Aires.  He debuted in print in Argentiner vokhnblat (Argentinian weekly newspaper) in 1913, publishing stories, sketches, and impressions drawn from Jewish life.  He contributed work to: Rozariyer vokhblat (Rosario weekly newspaper), Tog (Day), Idishe hofenung (Jewish hope), Di idishe velt (The Jewish world), Penemer un penemlekh (Appearances, big and small), Argentiner idisher kolonist (Argentinian Jewish colonist), Idishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper), Atidenu (Our future), and Kol hamore (Voice of the teacher), among others.  His work was also represented by a Hassidic tale in: Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944).  He was the founder of Histadrut hamorim (Federation of teachers) in Entre Rios.  He died in Buenos Aires.  After his death, his friends brought out a volume of his collected writings: Fun khsidishe shteyger (From a Hassidic position) (Buenos Aires, 1936), 204 pp.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; V. Bresler, ed., Antologye fun der yidisher literatur in argentine (Anthology of Jewish literature in Argentina) (Buenos Aires, 1944), p. 921.
Benyomen Elis

Wednesday, 10 October 2018


            The brother of Khayim-Mortkhe Fiderer, he was born in Tłuste, near Chortkiv, Galicia.  He studied with itinerant schoolteachers and private tutors, later working in a publishing house.  He lived in Vienna, Odessa, Prague, and in Germany.  He was active in the left Labor Zionist party and in German trade unions.  He appeared in public as a singer, public speaker, and actor.  When the Nazis seized Vienna, he fled to Zurich.  He spent the years 1938-1940 in Paris.  He was interned for a time in French camps.  In 1941 he came to New York.  From 1957 he was living in Berlin.  He worked with the local Jewish community, mainly in the realm of Jewish education and culture.  He debuted in print with short reportage pieces in Der yidisher arbayter (The Jewish worker) in Vienna in 1918.  He later wrote reportage pieces, articles, travel narratives, reviews of music and theater, among other items, for: Arbeter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) in Warsaw; Haynt (Today) and Naye prese (New press) in Paris; Dos idishe velt (The Jewish world) in Philadelphia; and Nyu-yorker vokhnblat (New York weekly newspaper); among others.  From 1957 he was the correspondent for: Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal; and Unzer vort (Our word) in Paris.  In 1966 he published letters from Berlin in Forverts (Forward) in New York.  He was a contributor as well to the German-language trade union newspapers in Austria and Germany.

Sources: Information from H. Pentshina; Unzer vort (Paris) (February 20, 1963).
Khayim Leyb Fuks


KHAYIM-MORTKHE FIDERER (June 25, 1897-December 30, 1962)
            The brother of Shmuel Fiderer, he was born in Tłuste, near Chortkiv, Galicia.  Until age thirteen he studied in religious primary school, thereafter becoming a laborer.  During WWI he was living in Vienna.  He was active in the Labor Zionist party.  He refused to serve in the army and was thus imprisoned until the end of 1918.  At the time of the Nazi Anschluss in Austria, he was still living in Vienna, and he left there for Zurich.  He contributed work for the Zurich Jewish community, mainly in the field of refugee relief.  From 1941 until his death, he lived in New York.  He began writing poetry in 1918 and debuted in print in Yudisher arbayter (Jewish worker) in Vienna.  He later placed work in: Arbeter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper), Der yunger dor (The young generation), and Di fraye yugnt (The free youth), among others, in Warsaw; Dos idishe vokhnblat (The Jewish weekly newspaper) in Zurich; and Nyu yorker vokhnblat (New York weekly newspaper) and Unzer veg (Our way), among others, in New York.  In book form: Lider fun a polit (Poems of a refugee) (New York, 1961), 161 pp.

Sources: Sh. D. Zinger, in Unzer veg (New York) (September-October 1962); obituary notices in the Yiddish press.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


ELYE (ALEXANDER) FIDELMAN (1825/1827-March 10, 1892)
            He was born in Minsk.  His father Ruvn was a musician.  He learned from his father to play the violin, as well as the cello and guitar.  Under the influence of his father, he became a wedding entertainer and acquired a name in Minsk and in the surrounding region.  He was also for a time a writer in the Minsk Jewish hospital and in the Jewish community hall.  Thanks to the well-known Paulina Vengrov (she mentions him in her famous memoirs), two collections of his poems were published: Shire osef oder di kleyn-shtetldike khasene (Song collection or the small-town wedding) (Vilna: Rozenharts, 1872/1873); and Lider tsum tsayt fartraybung (Poems from a time of exile) (Vilna: Rom, 1877).  Aside from a string of unpublished poems, a dramatic work by him entitled “Shimshn hagiber” (Samson the mighty) (1883) has been preserved.  In his depictions of Minsk and the environs, it was need and poverty that dominated.  His language is rough but energized with folk expressiveness, coarse humor, and satire.  He was in particular a master of describing people.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 3; N. O. (N. Oyslender), in Tsaytshrift (Minsk) 1 (1926), pp. 262-64; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 1 (New York, 1931), pp. 142-43.
Leyb Vaserman


NOSN FIDEL (b. 1895)
            He was born in Smile, Kiev district, Ukraine.  He received a Jewish and a partial secular education.  He lived in Kiev and Odessa.  Until WWI, he published poetry and sketches in Gut morgn (Good morning) in Odessa, and after the Revolution in the Soviet publications: Der odeser arbiter (The Odessa worker), Shtern (Star) in Kharkov, and Yungvarg (Youth) and Pyoner in Moscow, among others.  He authored a play entitled Erev komune (On the eve of the Commune), which was performed in 1920 in the Odessa Yiddish theater.  According to certain information, he lived for a time in the first half of the 1930s in Birobidzhan.  From the time of the Show Trials in 1937, there has been no further information about him.

Sources: Information from Yankev Apteyker and from Hershl Vaynroykh in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information from: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), p. 290.]


YISROEL HALEVI FIGLER (December 8, 1866-July 4, 1930)
            The father of Borekh-Arn Figler, he was born in Bender, Bessarabia.  He was among the first activists in the Bessarabian “love of Zion” movement.  In 1893 he lived in the land of Israel, worked laying the first railroad tracks, before returning to Bessarabia.  In 1908 he moved to Canada and until 1910 worked as a teacher in a Talmud Torah and led services in a synagogue.  He contributed to Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal and was in charge of its division (using the pen name Y. Halevi): “Ankedotn in der alter heym” (Anecdotes in the old country).  He authored five volumes of Figlers yidishe shrayb-metode (Figler’s method for writings) (Montreal, 1917-1919), each twenty-four pages in length and published in a number of editions.  He was also the author of Der idish onfanger (The Yiddish beginner), “a new method of learning to read and write Yiddish” (Montreal, 1919), 31 pp.  He was also the author of four volumes of a method for teaching reading and writing Hebrew (Montreal, 1919), each twenty-four pages.  He died in Montreal.

Sources: B. Y. Goldshteyn, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (April 23, 1918); obituary notices in the Yiddish press.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


BOREKH-ARN FIGLER (b. June 16, 1900)
            The son of Yisroel Halevi Figler, he was born in Bender, Bessarabia.  From 1909 he was living in Canada.  For a time he worked as a teacher in the Montreal Jewish schools, and he contributed to Keneder odler (Canadian eagle) in Montreal.  He published English translations of Y. L. Perets, Sholem Aleichem, and others in Canadian Anglophone Jewish periodicals.  He was the author of several books in English.  He was last living in Montreal, Canada.
Khayim Leyb Fuks