Thursday, 17 August 2017


MENDL MARK (April 6, 1900-November 20, 1974)
            He was born in Palonge (Palanga), formerly in Courland, later in Latvia.  He received a traditional Jewish education, later graduating from a Russian state high school.  For a time he was a student at St. Petersburg University.  He graduated from the state pedagogical curse of study in Latvia.  He was one of the founders, builders, and first teachers in the Yiddish secular schools in Latvia.  He served for a while as director of the pedagogical course in the school organization in Latvia.  He was chairman of central Jewish school organization of the teachers’ union (TSIL) in Latvia and a member of Jewish Education Council in the Latvian Ministry of Education.  Between the two world wars, he was active in the Jewish Folks-partey.  He wrote for the journals Der shtrom (The current) in Libave (Liepāja) and Yidishe shprakh (Yiddish language) in New York, and other serials, on matters that were related to the Jewish school and to the Yiddish language.  Over the years 1927-1929, he edited Naye vegn (New paths), a monthly put out by the Jewish school organization in Latvia.  He was co-editor of the youth publication Yugnt-blat (Youth newspaper) in 1934 and of the book Yidishe shul-bavegung in letland (The Jewish school movement in Latvia) (Riga, 1926), 210 pp.  From Russian into Yiddish, he translated Dr. B. Hertsfeld’s nook, Muter un kind, lernbukh far higyene fun der muter un kind (Mother and child, textbook on hygiene for the mother and child) (Riga, 1933), 192 pp.  Due to the fascist coup d’état of 1938 in Latvia, he moved to Canada, served in Montreal as principal of a Workmen’s Circle School, and then in 1945 moved to the United States and lived in New York.  He was a contributor to the Der groyser verterbukh fun der yidisher shprakh (The great dictionary of the Yiddish language) (New York: Book Committee, 1961-), 4 vols.  He died in Miami Beach, Florida.


MENDL MARK (1914-October 28, 1942)
            He was born in Cracow, western Galicia.  He received a strongly religious education.  He was active in the Orthodox movement in Cracow.  He contributed to the weekly newspaper Idishe shtime (Jewish voice) in Cracow (1931-1939).  He also placed work in Dos likht (The light) in Cracow and in Dos yidishe likht (The Jewish light) in Kolomaye, among other serials.  He was murdered by the Nazis on bloody October 28 in the Cracow ghetto.

Sources: Sefer kroke (Volume for Cracow) (Jerusalem, 1959); information from Moyshe Zigler in Jerusalem, and from L. Shteyn in New York.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


YANKEV-YUDE MARK (May 3, 1856-February 10, 1929)
            He was born in Palonge (Palanga), formerly in Courland, later in Latvia.  He studied in the Telz yeshiva, and as an adult he studied commerce in Germany.  He became a prominent Mizrachi leader.  He began his writing career in Hebrew for Hamagid (The preacher) in 1874, with correspondence pieces and articles, later contributing to: Hamelits (The spectator) in Odessa; Hatsfira (The times) in Warsaw; Yidishes tageblat (Jewish daily newspaper) and Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal) in New York.  Through letters in Hebrew, Russian, and German, over the course of thirty-five years he ran a bookkeeping course.  In 1920 he immigrated to the United States.  In 1927 in New York, he published his only book, Gedoylim fun unzer tsayt, monografyes, kharakter-shtrikhn un zikhroynes (Great men of our time, monographs, character traits, and memoirs), 384 pp.  The volume consists of two parts: “Rabonim un manhigim” (Rabbis and leaders) and “Maskolim un askonim” (Followers of the Jewish Enlightenment and community leaders).  It was a sort of book of memoirs.  He personally knew the personalities about whom he wrote.  These included: Rabbi Yisroel Salanter, Rabbi Ḥaim Soloveichik, Rabbi Shmuel Mohilever, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, and twenty-two other rabbis and leaders.  Of the secular followers of the Enlightenment and community leaders, he included Mattityahu Strashun, Kalman Shulman, Baron Ginzburg, and twelve other personalities.  Mark initially published these works in separate articles in Yidishe tageblat.  In 1958, twenty-nine years after his death, and thirty-one years after its first Yiddish edition, his book was published in a Hebrew translation under the title, Bimehitsatam shel gedole hador, biografiyot, sipurim, imrot vesiḥot ḥolin shel gedole yisrael bador hakodem (In the presence of the greatest of the generation: biographies, narratives, sayings, and secular conversations of the great Jewish people of the previous generation) (Jerusalem: Goyl), 248 pp.  He died in New York.


YUDL (YUDEL) MARK (November 2, 1897-August 2, 1975)
            He was born in Palonge (Palanga), Lithuania.  Until 1911 he studied in the local Russian state school and Jewish subjects as well as Hebrew with private teachers, later in Cohen’s high school in Vilna.  Over the years 1915-1918, he studied in the historical-philology department in St. Petersburg University in the elite course of Baron Ginzburg.  He was student of Nokhum Shtif who influenced him to dedicate his studies to the Yiddish language, as well as to concur with the ideology of the Jewish Folks-partey.  He was secretary of the “student aid society” and founder of a folkish student group, while at the same time active in the “Khevre mefitse haskole” (Society for the promotion of enlightenment [among the Jews of Russia]) and in the office of the central committee of the all-Russian Jewish Folks-partey.  In late 1918 he settled in Libave (Liepāja), Latvia, where he served as representative of the Jewish Folks-partey in the municipal administration and in the provisional Latvian parliament.  He worked as a Yiddish teacher, 1919-1920, in the junior high school in Shkud (Skuodas), and he later (with interruptions) until 1924 lived in Vilkomir (Ukmergė), Lithuania.  He was the founder of the Vilkomir Jewish Senior High School (the first in Lithuania) and its teacher of Yiddish and Russian.  Together with Yoysef Tshernikhov, in 1922 he directed the election campaign of the Folks-partey for the Lithuanian parliament.  He served as general secretary of the Jewish National Council.  He was a teacher of Yiddish and Yiddish literature, 1927-1930, at the Riga municipal Jewish high school and a teacher of Yiddish in the state Jewish teachers’ course of study.  He later worked as a teacher in the Kovno commercial high school.  He was a contributor to YIVO (Yiddish Scientific Institute) and from 1929 a member of its executive bureau.  He came to the United States for the first time in 1934 and for the second time in 1936.  At that point he was active in the educational, philological, literary, and social life in America.  He worked as a teacher in a Jewish middle school and in the pedagogical course at Workmen’s Circle.  From 1941 he was a consultant to Jewish schools for the Jewish Education Committee in New York.  He was also vice-president of the Council for Jewish Education.  His writing activities began with the daily newspaper Nayes (News) in Kovno (1921), edited by Dr. A. Mukdoni, and it appeared as a weekly from June 1922 until the end of 1923 under the editorship of Mark and Y. Tshernikhov; in the period 1926-mid-1927, it was edited by Mark and Ozer Finkelshteyn.  He was a contributor, 1923-1924, to Dr. Chaim Zhitlovsky’s monthly journal Dos naye leben (The new life).  He also placed work in: the anthology Der veg tsu der yidisher visnshaft (The path to Jewish scholarship) (Kovno, 1926); Dos folk (The people) and Frimorgn (Morning) in Riga; Vilner tog (Vilna day), Yidish far ale (Yiddish for everyone), and Di naye shul (The new school)—in Vilna; Shul-vegn (School ways) in Warsaw; Dorem-amerike (South America) in Buenos Aires; and the like.  He was editor-in-chief, 1930-1934, of Folks-blat (People’s newspaper) in Kovno, in which, in addition to articles on a variety of topics, he published serially novels translated from German: Erich Maria Remarque, Afn mayrev-front keyn nayes (All Quiet on the Western Front [original: Im Westen nichts Neues]); and Artur Landsberger, Berlin on yidn (Berlin without Jews [original: Berlin ohne Juden]).[1]  From early 1930 until his arrival in the United States, he served as the Lithuanian correspondent for New York’s Forverts (Forward), using the pen name Dr. Shteynbakh, “Briv fun lite” (Letter from Lithuania).  Once in America (from 1936), he wrote for: Tsukunft (Future), Forverts, Unzer shul (Our school), Kultur un dertsiung (Culture and education), Afn shvel (At the threshold), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), Yidishe dertsiung (Jewish education), Proletarishe velt (Proletarian world), Unzer veg (Our oath), and Kinder-tsaytung (Children’s newspaper)—in New York.  He was a contributor (from 1930) to Yivo-bleter (Pages from YIVO) in Vilna and later New York, for which he wrote dozens of pieces on linguistic issues.  He edited the YIVO journal Yidishe shprakh (Yiddish language), in which, among other items, he published an essay on Mendl Lefin-Satanover, as well as his experiment at a Yiddish translation of Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address.”  In the Zamlbukh lekoved dem tsveyhundert un fuftsikstn yoyvl fun der yidisher prese, 1686-1936 (Anthology in honor of the 250th jubilee of the Yiddish press, 1686-1936), ed. Dr. Y. Shatski (New York, 1937), he wrote a piece entitled “Yidishe peryodishe oysgabes in lite” (Yiddish periodical publications in Lithuania) (pp. 250-98); and for Lite (Lithuania) anthology, vol. 1 (New York, 1951), he penned “Unzer litvisher yidish” (Our Lithuanian Yiddish) (pp. 429-72).  He wrote the introduction and compiled the material for Dr khayim zhitlovski, geklibene verk (Dr. Chaim Zhitlovsky, selected works) (New York, 1955), 422 pp., which was published by the “Stein Library” of the World Jewish Culture Congress.  He penned the “Heores un bamerkungen” (Notes and observations) to vol. 8 of Shimen Dubnov’s Velt-geshikhte fun yidishn folk (World history of the Jewish people) (Buenos Aires, 1955).  For the Shmuel niger-bukh (Volume for Shmuel Niger) (New York: YIVO, 1958), pp. 127-57, he wrote: “Yidish-hebreishe un hebreish-yidishe nay-shafungen” (New Yiddish-Hebrew and Hebrew-Yiddish creations).  He also contributed to: the Yiddish-Hebrew Yorbikher (Yearbooks) of the book council in New York; Jewish Education; and Finkelstein’s The Jews.  In the Encyclopedia of Literature (New York, 1947), he published portions of a longer “history of Yiddish literature.”  He edited: Pedagogisher buleten (Pedagogical bulletin) in New York (from 1941); Pinkes byalistok (Records of Bialystok), vol. 1 (New York, 1949), vol. 2 (New York, 1950); and the two-volume Yorbukh fun amopteyl fun yivo (Annual from the American branch of YIVO) (New York, 1939), with Leybush Lehrer.  He was co-editor with Professor Yude A. Yofe of Der groyser verterbukh fun der yidisher shprakh (The great dictionary of the Yiddish language) (New York: Book Committee, 1961-), 4 vols.  His books include: Shul-gramatik, in bayshpil un oyfgabes (School grammar, with examples and exercises) (Kovno: Likht, 1921), 124 pp., second edition (Kovno: Likht, 1923), 144 pp.; Eynheytlekhe folkshul, avtonomye in shul, unzere rikhtungen, di eynheytlekhe shul (Uniform people’s school, autonomy in school, our direction, the uniform school) (Kovno: Likht, 1922), 119 pp.; Program far yidish, shprakh un literatur, far pedagogishe kursn, far lerer-seminarn, far lerer-ekzamens (Program for Yiddish, language and literature, for pedagogical courses, for teachers’ seminars, for teachers’ examinations) (Riga, 1928), 32 pp., with Y. Kharlash; Ale mames zaynen sheyn (All mothers are beautiful) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1937), 48 pp., with M. Y. Berditshevski (Berdichevsky); Proyekt fun program far yidish in der elementar-shul (Project for a program in Yiddish in the elementary school) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1939), 81 pp.; Arbetsbukh far yidish in mitlshul (Workbook for Yiddish in middle school) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1939), 106 pp., part 2 (1940), 35 pp., second, improved edition (1941), 207 pp.; Gut yontef (Happy holidays), stories of the holidays for children (Hanukkah, Purim, Passover, Scroll of Ruth) (New York, 1940); Di geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur, konspekt (The history of Yiddish literature, synopsis) (New York, 1943), 54 pp.; Der vokabular farn onheyber-klas in der amerikaner yidisher shul (The vocabulary for the beginning class in the Yiddish school in America) (New York: YIVO, 1944), 78 pp., with Y. Steinbaum and David Bridger; Khumesh far kinder, loyt yehoyesh (Pentateuch for children, following Yehoash) (New York: Matones, 1944), 270 pp.  Of his stories about historical Jewish figures, he published in Kinder-tsaytung: Rabeynu gershom, rashi, yude khosed (Rabbenu Gershom, Rashi, Judah the Pious) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1941), 32 pp.; Dovid haruveyni un shloyme molkho (David Hareuveni and Solomon Molkho) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1941), 98 pp.; Der yidisher poypst (The Jewish pope) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1947), 125 pp., with drawings by Y. Likhtenshteyn; Der rambam (The Rambam [Moses Maimonides]) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1947), 56 pp.—all of these with the addition of stories about “Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg,” “Moshe ben Ḥanokh,” “Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut,” “Rabbi Shmuel ha-Nagid,” “Rabbenu Baḥya ibn Paquda,” “Moshe ibn Ezra,” “Solomon ibn Gabirol,” “Rabbi Yehuda Halevi,” “Avraham ibn Ezra,” “Der Ramban [Naḥmanides],” and a longer story about the “Binding of Isaac” were included in Historishe geshtaltn (Historical personalities) (Buenos Aires, 1957), 166 pp.; Tsvey referatn (Two talks)—“Di shlikhes fun der yidisher shul” (Tasks for the Yiddish school) and “Afn shvel fun fertn yorhundert in amerike” (On the threshold of the fourth century in America)—(New York: Y. Kaminski, 1954), 31 pp.; Yidishe kinder, leyenbukh farn tsveytn lernyor (Jewish children, textbook for the second school year) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1955), 224 pp., with Zalmen Yefroykin; Heft far yidish (Notebook for Yiddish) (New York, 1957); Arbetsbukh tsu yidishe ḳinder 1, mit muzik tsu di lider in leyenbukh (Workbook for Jewish children I, with music accompanying the poems in the textbook) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1959), 80 pp.; Yidish far shul and heym (Yiddish for school and home) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1961), 25 pp. in Yiddish and 24 pp. in English; Shimen dubnov (Shimon Dubnow) (New York: Workmen’s Circle, 1962), 78 pp.; Avrom sutskevers poetisher veg (Avraham Sutzkever’s poetic path) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1974), 176 pp.; Gramatik fun der yidisher klal-shprakh (Grammar of the standard Yiddish language) (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, 1978), xii + 394 pp.  From German he translated: V. Hodan (?), Yingl oder meydl (Boy or girl), “friendly chats on the issue of gender” (Riga, 1929), 168 pp.; Thomas Mann, Tonyo kreger (Tomio Krüger), with a preface on Thomas Mann and his work (Riga: Bikher far alemen, 1930), 189 pp.  He also used such pen names as: M. Rekhtman, M. Mirkin, Y. Feyges, L. Zamt, and Dr. Shteynbakh.  He visited the state of Israel in 1947 and 1958, South Africa in 1958, and Argentina in 1963.  He died in Los Angeles. 
            Mark’s wife, FEYGL MARK, was born in 1912 in Tsoyzmer (Sandomierz), Poland.  She published stories in Kinder-tsaytung and a series of articles on painting in Idisher kemfer in New York.  She worked as a teacher of Yiddish in the New School for Social Research in New York.  Their son, EMANUEL MARK, published poems in Tsukunft.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; M. Anilovitsh and M. Yofe, Shriftn fun psikhologye un pedagogik (Writings on psychology and pedagogy) 1 (Vilna: YIVO, 1933), pp. 481, 526; M. Vizhnitski (M. Shtarkman), in Tog (New York) (January 11, 1935); Dr. A. Mukdoni, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 16, 1935); Mukdoni, in Lite (Lithuania) anthology, vol. 1 (New York, 1951), p. 1094; Y. Sh. Prenovits, in Forverts (New York) (January 15, 1935); B. Ts. Goldberg, in Tog (January 17, 1935); N. Y. Gotlib, in Lite, p. 1108; Yivo-biblyografye (YIVO bibliography), part 1, 1925-1941 (New York, 1943), part 2, 1942-1950 (New York, 1950), see indexes; Shmuel Niger, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 15, 1953; October 23, 1955); Der Lebediker, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (May 13, 1956); Y. Botoshanski, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (September 5, 1957); Zalmen Yefroykin, in Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (October 1957); Yefroykin and Y. Levin-Shatskes, Kultur un dertsiung (October 1959); Elye Shulman, in Der veker (New York) (March 1, 1958); D. Segal (Bashevis), in Forverts (New York) (March 8, 1959; January 21, 1962); Arn Tsaytlin, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (September 4, 1959; February 9, 1962); T. Bernshteyn, in Kultur un dertsiung (October 1959); Yankev Glatshteyn, in Tsukunft (New York) (January 1960); B. Shefner, in Forverts (December 30, 1961); Y. Shteynboym, in Tsukunft (December 1961); A. Oyerbakh, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (January 21, 1962); Leybush Lehrer, in Idisher kemfer (February 2, 1962); A. Glants-Leyeles, in Unzer tsayt (New York) (March-April 1962); M. V. Bernshteyn, in Der veker (July 1962); Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York, 1962), see index; Y. Yeshurin, in jubilee issue of Tsukunft (November-December 1962); L. Amnon, in Kinder zhurnal (New York) (February 1963); G. Vayner, in Jewish Book Annual XX (1962-1963)/
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information form: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 368.]

[1] Translator’s note. The text gives “Sam. Graneman” as the author of this well-known novel, but I believe that it should be “Artur Landsberger.” (JAF)

Wednesday, 16 August 2017


BER MARK (June 8, 1908-August 4, 1966)
            The brother of Arn Mark, he was born in Lomzhe, Russian Poland.  He was the son of a Mizrachi activist, Tsvi-Hirsh Mark.  He attended a Hebrew school and a Polish Jewish high school.  Over the years 1927-1931, he studied to be a lawyer at Warsaw University.  For a time he worked as a teacher in private Jewish high schools in Warsaw.  He then made the move to become a journalist.  From his student years, he was active in the illegal Communist movement.  He was a member of the administration, 1936-1939, of the Jewish literary writers’ and journalists’ association (13 Tłomackie St.) in Warsaw.  When the Germans invaded Poland in September 1939, he took part in the defense of Warsaw, while at the same time assisting in publishing the last issues of Der moment (The moment), for which he was a regular contributor.  In November 1939 he fled to Bialystok.  He was a scholarly contributor, 1940-1941, to the revived Jewish section of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences.  Following the German invasion of Soviet Russia in June 1941, he fled deep into Russia, lived on a collective farm in Novouzensk, and later (until the winter of 1943) in Kuybyshev [now, Samara], where he took part in the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee.  After that he was in Moscow until January 1946.  He was vice-chair of the organized committee of Polish Jews and the organizer of relief work on behalf of Jewish refugees—especially on behalf of Jewish writer-refugees.  From 1946 he was back in Poland, initially in Lodz, later in Warsaw.  He was a member of the presidium of the central committee of Polish Jewry and chairman of the Jewish literary association.  From 1949 he was director of the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.  From 1954 he was professor of history at Warsaw University and member of the Polish Academy of Sciences.  That year he received a medal from the Polish government for his labors in postwar Poland.  In 1957 he spoke (in Yiddish) on the Jewish resistance to the Nazis—at the second congress of Jewish scholars in Jerusalem—and on the role played by the Jewish proletariat in the Revolution of 1905—at the Hebrew University.  He was then received by Histadrut and the local press, and he openly asked that people forgive him for “misunderstandings—we were misled”; he then expressed enthusiasm for the accomplishments of the Jewish state (Y. Rimun, in Keneder odler [Canadian eagle] in Montreal, March 12, 1957).  Mark began his literary activities with articles on Yiddish literature in Dos naye lebn (The new life), edited by Peysekh Kaplan, in Bialystok (1926), and from that point in time he contributed to a large number of Jewish and non-Jewish publications throughout the world.  He was co-editor of almost all Yiddish and Polish legal and illegal Communist publications in Poland until 1939.  He was also an internal contributor and, from 1936 to 1939, night editor of the daily newspaper Der moment; a regular contributor to Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves), co-editor 1938-1939, and to Shriftn (Writings), 1936-1939, as well as other serials in Warsaw.  He edited a number of books for the publisher “Mark Rakovski” in Warsaw and “Tomor” in Vilna.  In Soviet Russia, he published in: Byalistoker shtern (Bialystok star), Der shtern (The star), and Oktyabr (October) in Minsk; in an anti-Nazi collection, Dos blut ruft tsu nekome, vos gelitene dertseyln vegn fashishtishe akhzoryes inem okupirtn poyln (Blood calls for revenge, what the victims recount against fascist atrocities in occupied Poland) (Moscow: Der emes, 1941); and the anthologies: Sovetish (Soviet), Tsum zig (To victory), and Eynikeyt (Unity), among others, in Moscow.  From 1946 he placed work in: Dos naye lebn in Lodz-Warsaw (1946-1951), for which he was also editor-in-chief; Yidishe shriftn (Yiddish writings) (1946-1962), among other items, he wrote here a great number of literary critical essays; Folks-shtime (Voice of the people) in Lodz-Warsaw (1946-1962; Bleter far geshikhte (Pages for history) in Warsaw; from 1948 the Polish-language Biuletyn (Bulletin) for the Jewish Historical Institute, for which he also served as editor; Frayhayt (Freedom), Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture), Eynikeyt, Poylishe id (Polish Jew), and Zamlungen (Anthologies), among others, in New York; Fray yisroel (Free Israel), Yisroel shtime (Voice of Israel), Letste nayes (Latest news), Al hamishmar (On guard), and Lemerḥav (Into the open), among others, in the state of Israel; Naye prese (New press), Parizer shriftn (Parisian writings), and Parizer tsaytshrift (Parisian periodical), among others, in Paris; Haynt (Today), Ikuf-bleter (Pages from IKUF), Argentiner landsmanshaftn (Argentinian native-place associations), Byalistoker vegn (Bialystok ways), and Undzer lodz (Our Lodz), among others, in Buenos Aires.  In Pinkes varshe (Records of Warsaw) (Buenos Aires, 1955), cols. 913-1054, he published new material on the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.  He edited a series of books for “Yidish-bukh” in Warsaw (1953-1962), the literary collection Tsvishn lebn un toyt, literarishe shafungen in di getos un lagern (Between life and death, literary creations in the ghettos and concentration camps) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1955), 148 pp., and the poetry collection of young murdered poets, Dos lid in geto (The poem in the ghetto) (Warsaw, 1962), among other such works.
            In book form he published, in Yiddish: Geshikhte fun der poylisher arbeter-bavegung (History of the Polish labor movement) (Warsaw, 1936), published in booklets of 64 pp., altogether 260 pp. (confiscated by the governmental authorities); Geshikhte fun sotsyale bavegungen in poyln (History of social movement in Poland), vol. 1 (Vilna: Mitlalter, 1938), 294 pp., vol. 2 (Vilna, Naytsayt, 1939), 437 pp.; Der oyfshtand in varshever geto (The uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto) (Moscow, 1947), 217 pp.; Dos bukh fun gvure (The book of valor), vol. 1 “Oyfshtand fun varshever geto” (Warsaw Ghetto uprising) (Lodz, 1947), 391 pp. + 7 pp., with illustrations (published in various editions in Hebrew, Polish, and other languages—and in Yiddish an enlarged edition appeared in Warsaw in 1955, 436 pp., with a chronology of the most important events of the uprising and in the resistance); Afn keyver fun tsvi-hirsh grets, esey (At the grave of Zvi-Hirsch Graetz, an essay) (Wrocław, 1948), 24 pp.; Di yidishe tragedye in der poylisher literatur (The Jewish tragedy in Polish literature) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1950), 157 pp.; Der oyfshtand in byalistoker geto (The resistance in the Bialystok ghetto) (Warsaw: Jewish Historical Institute, 1950), 509 pp., second edition (Buenos Aires: Aykop, 1953), 522 pp.; Viktor hugo, tsum hundert un fuftsiktn yortog fun zayn geboyrn (Victor Hugo, on the 150th anniversary of his birth) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1952), 62 pp., with illustrations; Dokumentn un materialn vegn oyfshtand in varshever geto (Documents and materials on the resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1953), 404 pp.; Di umgekumene shrayber fun di getos un lagern (The murdered writers from the ghettos and camps) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1954), 224 pp.; Adam mitskevitsh un di yidn (Adam Mickiewicz and the Jews) (Warsaw, 1955), 101 pp.; with Sz. Zacharjasz, P. P. R. in kamf un boy, tsum tsentn yortog fun der antshteyung fun der poylisher arbeter-partey (The P.P.R. in struggle and building, on the tenth anniversary of the rise of the Polish Workers’ Party) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1955), 309 pp. + 5 pp.; Di geshikhte fun yidn in poyln (The history of Jews in Poland), vol. 1 (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1957), 460 pp., vol. 2 (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1957), 460 pp., and prepared for publication, vol. 3 “Di yidn in poyln biz der tsveyter velt-milkhome” (The Jews in Poland until WWII), and vol. 4 “Di okupatsye-tsayt un der goyrl fun der sheyres-hapleyte” (The occupation period and the fate of the survivors); Di yidishe vidershtendlekhe yugnt-grupe in daytshland fun b. boym (The Jewish resistance youth group in Germany of B. Baum) (Warsaw, 1961), 48 pp.; Megiles oyshvits (The scroll of Auschwitz) (Tel Aviv: Yisroel-bukh, 1977), 464 pp.  In Polish: Ruch oporu w getcie bialostockim (Resistance movement in the Bialystok ghetto) (Warsaw: Jewish Historical Institute, 1952), 283 pp.; Powstanie w getcie warszawskim na tle ruchu oporu w Polsce, geneza i przebieg (Uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto against the backdrop of resistance in Poland, genesis and course) (Warsaw: Jewish Historical Institute, 1953), 390 pp., second edition (1954); Rzemieślnicy żydowscy w Polsce feudalnej (Jewish artisans in feudal Poland) (Warsaw, 1954); Proletariat żydowski w Rewolucji 1905 roku (The Jewish proletariat in the 1905 Revolution) (Warsaw, 1956); Wybór opowiadań (Selection of stories [by Yitskhok Leyb Perets]) (Wrocław-Krakow, 1958), 364 pp.; Szołem-Ałejchem, 1859-1916, epoka, życie i dzieła (Sholem-Aleykhem, 1859-1916, era, life, and works) (Warsaw: Yidish-bukh, 1959), 70 pp.; Walka i zagłada warszawskiego getta (The fighting and destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto) (Warsaw, 1959), 507 pp.; “Literarishe Tribune i Tlomackie 13” (Literary tribune and 13 Tlomackie St.), in Księdze Wspomnień (Book of memoirs) (Warsaw, 1960); Grupa Bauma, z dziejów walki antyfaszystowskiej młodzieży żydowskiej w Niemczech w latach 1937-1942 (The Baum Group: From the history of anti-fascist struggle of Jewish youth in Germany in the years, 1937-1942) (Warsaw, 1960), 45 pp.; Życie i walka młodzieży w gettach, w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej, 1939-1944 (The life and struggle of the youth in the ghettos, during the Nazi occupation, 1939-1944) (Warsaw: Iskry, 1961), 96 pp.  In Hebrew: Ḥurban u-mered yehude polin betekufat hakibush hahitleri (Destruction and rebellion of Polish Jewry during the Hitler’s occupation) (Warsaw: Jewish Historical Institute, 1955), 22 pp.; Baayot ḥaker tenuat hamri (Problems in the study of the resistance movement) (Jerusalem, 1957).  Translations of his works into English include: The Report of Jürgen Stroop: Concerning the Uprising in the Ghetto of Warsaw and the Liquidation of the Jewish Residential Area (Warsaw: Jewish Historical Institute, 1958), 123 pp.  Into French: his writings on the uprisings in the Warsaw and Bialystok ghettos, such as L’Insurrection du ghetto de Varsovie, trans. Rose Huriaud, adapted by Jean Noaro (Paris, Éditions sociales, 1955), 239 pp.; into Spanish (Buenos Aires, 1956); into Czech (Prague, 1958); and into Portuguese (Rio de Janeiro, 1960).  He translated from Polish into Yiddish: Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum, Di poylish-yidishe batsiungen in der tsayt fun der tsveyter velt-milkhome (Polish-Jewish relations at the time of WWII) (Warsaw, 1960); and with Ayzenbakh et al., he prepared the annotations to Geto-ksovim fun em. ringelblum (Ghetto writings of E. Ringelblum) (Warsaw, 1960).  He also published under such pseudonyms as: B. Aronski, B. Markus, Berl Aronovitsh, M. Kovalski, B. Aronovitsh, Arkhivaryus, Mittsin, and Shmuel Rozen.  He died in Warsaw.

Sources: N. Mirer, in Foroys (Warsaw) (April 29, 1938); V. Erlikh, in Foroys (May 26, 1939; June 23, 1939); Itzik Fefer, in Eynikeyt (Moscow) (February 7, 1932); Avrom Reyzen, in Di feder (New York) (1949), pp. 187-88; B. Y. Byalostotski, in Yorbukh tsh”t (1948/1949 yearbook) (New York, 1949); H. Vaynroykh, Blut af der zun (Blood on the sun) (New York, 1950), p. 90; Dr. F. Fridman, in Yorbukh tshy”a (1950/1951 yearbook) (New York, 1951); Fridman, in Tsukunft (New York) (April 1954); M. Mirski, in Yidishe shriftn (Warsaw) (December 1950); D. Sfard, in Yidishe shriftn (January 1, 1951; December 1953; April 1954); Sfard, Shrayber un bikher (Writers and books) (Warsaw, 1951), pp. 92-97; Sfard, Shtudyes un skitsn (Studies and sketches) (Warsaw, 1955); L. Zhitnitski, in Di prese (Buenos Aires) (April 24, 1954); Yankev Leshtshinski, in Forverts (New York) (June 7, 1954); B. Kutsher, Geven amol varshe (As Warsaw once was) (Paris, 1955), see index; M. Tsanin, in Forverts (July 4, 1955); Khayim Leyb Fuks, in Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957); Y. Rimun, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (March 12, 1957); Y. Emyot, in Folks-shtime (Warsaw) (October 18-19, 1957); N. Mayzil, in Yidishe kultur (New York) (August-September 1958); B. Ts. Goldberg, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (May 17, 1959); Yankev Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (In essence), vol. 2 (Buenos Aires, 1960), pp. 37-39; Sh. L. Shnayderman, in Forverts (February 26, 1960); Yonas Turkov, in Tsukunft (October 1961); Kh. Ayatli, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (January 5, 1962); Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York, 1962), see index; M. Vaykhert, Yidishe aleynhilf (Jewish self-help) (Tel Aviv, 1962).
Khayim Leyb Fuks

[Additional information form: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 368.]

Tuesday, 15 August 2017


ARN MARK (October 6, 1904-December 11, 1938)
            The brother of Berl Mark, he was born in Lomzhe, Russian Poland.  He came from a family of distinguished scholars.  His education began in a “cheder metukan” (improved religious elementary school), where he studied Hebrew, Tanakh, and a bit of Talmud.  At age ten he moved on to a yeshiva in Bialystok, where his parents had settled, and at the same time he prepared for entrance into high school.  A year later he returned to Lomzhe, entered a Polish high school, and after graduating in 1922 he studied Slavic languages and literatures at Warsaw University.  He was active in the Jewish labor movement.  He worked as a teacher, 1924-1925, in a high school in Bialystok, and from 1927-1928 he became a teacher of Yiddish and literature in the Vilna senior high school.  While still in high school, he contributed work to various youth writings.  In 1921 he was the copublisher of several issues of the newspaper Der hamer (The hammer) in Lomzhe.  In 1923 he placed poems in the anthology Tayfun (Typhoon).  In 1924 he began to contribute to Unzer lebn (Our life) in Bialystok, in which he published articles on literature and writers (among them: Max Brod, H. Leivick, H. Royzenblat, Z. Segalovitsh, A. Ernburg, and Y. Tuvim, among others), as well as stories and poetry.  From time to time he wrote articles on literary topics also for Vilner tog (Vilna day) and for Warsaw’s Folks-tsaytung (People’s newspaper), and many articles for Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) in Warsaw and other publications.  He also wrote for Zay gezunt (Be well) and Folks-gezunt (People’s health).  He wrote essays and treatments on: Y. Opatoshu, A. Raboy, Falk Halpern, Kalmen Lis, Yankev Shternberg, Arn Tsaytlin, Ber Horovits, and Elkhonen Vogler, among others.  He translated into Yiddish: the ten-volume Jean-Christophe (as Zhan-kristof) by Romain Rolland (Warsaw, 1927); Di froy fun draysik yor (The woman age thirty [original: La fame de trente ans]) by Honoré de Balzac; Di farshtoysene (Les Misérables) by Victor Hugo; Di misteryen (The mysteries [original: Misterier]) and Shtot zegelfas (Segelfoss city [original: Segelfoss by]) by Knut Hamsun; poems by Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Krasinski, among others; and Bronks ekspres (Bronx express) [?] by Osip Dymov; among others.  He also published A fulshtendik poylish-yidish verterbukh (A complete Polish-Yiddish dictionary) (Warsaw: Aḥisefer, 1920), 1908 cols; and he adapted a series of works by Mendele, Sholem-Aleykhem, Perets, and Leivick for school youth.  He worked intensively with the art magazine Di vokh (The week) and with the scholarly journal Etyudn (Studies) of which he was also co-editor.  He left in manuscript treatments of: H. Leivick, M. L. Halpern, Kadia Molodowsky, A. Lutski, Itzik Manger, M. Kulbak, Izzy Kharik, and others; writings on Perets as a playwright and Perets as the “Don Juan of ideas”; on Shakespeare’s Othello; “Fun kabtsansk biz kapulye” (From Kabtsansk to Kapulye), a longer work on Mendele; “Biz der tog vet oyfgeyn” (Until the day dawns), a work about Mani Leib; “Af naye relsn” (On new rails), considerations of the role of the writer, a series of ten chapters; and more.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Vilner tog (December 12, 1938); Sh. Zaromb, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (December 16, 1938); L. Turbovitsh, in Foroys (Warsaw) (January 6, 1939); A. Morevski, in Vilner tog (January 15, 1939); A. Y. Goldshmidt, in Di tsayt (Vilna) (January 16, 1939); Dos naye lebn (Bialystok) 111 (380) (1948); Shmerke katsherginski ondenk-bukh (Shmerke Katsherginski remembrance volume) (Buenos Aires, 1956); Meylekh Ravitsh, Mayn leksikon (My lexicon), vol. 2 (Montreal, 1945); Lomzhe anthology (New York, 1957).
Mortkhe Yofe


PEYSEKH MAREK (March 24, 1862-March 1920)
            He was born in Shadeve (Shadov), Kovno district, Lithuania.  He was the son of a Hebrew teacher and follower of the Jewish Enlightenment who published a lengthy poem in Hashaḥar (The dawn).  He graduated from the law faculty of Moscow University.  He was cofounder of the Moscow association “Bene-tsiyon” (Children of Zion).  He worked as a bookkeeper in a soap factory and in his free time carried out research in the field of Jewish cultural history.  He debuted in print with a piece on the history of Jewish publishers in Russia in the Russian Jewish serial Voskhod (Arise) in 1888.  Together with Shoyel Ginzburg, he published the monumental work Di yidishe folkslider in rusland (Jewish folksongs in Russia).  On an assignment for “Khevre mefitse haskole” (Society for the promotion of enlightenment [among the Jews of Russia]), he visited the Jewish Pale of Settlement and collected a wealth of material on popular Jewish education and Jewish history generally, and reworked some of it in his Russian-language work, Ocherki po istorii prosvi︠eshcheniia evreev v Rossii (Studies in the history of Jewish education in Russia) (Moscow, 1909), 288 pp., which concerned the era from 1844 to 1873.  He also published historical articles in Evreiskaia starina (The Jewish past), Perezhitoie (The past), and elsewhere.  At his initiative the Moscow publisher Mir (World) began to publish a large-scale Jewish history and monographs by various scholars.  He devoted an especial degree of attention to work on the “Vaad arba aratsot” (Council of Four Lands) and put together a special map of the Jewish communities that were part of one or another council.  WWI disrupted his work on the first volume.  After the October Revolution, he completely abandoned scholarly work, and due to hunger he moved to Volsk (Vol’sk), Saratov district, where he picked up and continued reworking his material.  In Russian he wrote a work on the history of the Jewish intelligentsia, the rise of Hassidism, and the religious struggle in the eighteenth century, but it remained unpublished.  In his bequest were also discovered several poems in Yiddish, among them a poem entitled “Di letste minutn fun besht” (The last minutes of the Besht [Bal-Shem-Tov]), which he wrote just before his death, and a Yiddish lullaby.  He died in Saratov.  After his death, a Marek Committee was established in Moscow to translate and publish his works in Yiddish and Hebrew.  Of his stories in Yiddish that he published in Fraynd (Friend), he brought out in book form: Tsvey gezeyres (Two evil decrees), from the era of Catherine II (St. Petersburg, 1908), in connection with the false accusation levelled by Catherine’s favorite Semyon Zorich about fake bank notes.  In the story he describes the lifestyle of Russian Jews at that time, as well as the commotion that the Hassidic movement aroused among the Jewish masses.

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2.


AVROM MOREVSKI (March 18, 1886-March 11, 1964)
            The adopted name of the actor and writer Avrom Menaker, he was born in Vilna.  He came from a family of porgers (H. menakerim).  He studied in religious elementary schools, Tanakh and Hebrew with the well-known Vilna educator Dovid Notik, and Russian and secular subject matter with private tutors.  He was drawn when quite young to the theater, studied in the Odessa school, demonstrated great acting talents, and in 1905 began performing theater in Russian.  That year, he was compelled to return to Vilna because of the Odessa pogrom.  Over the years 1907-1910, he studied at the Suvorin Theater School in St. Petersburg, and in 1910 he graduated from the school with distinction; he went on to perform in Pavlovsk at the time of Nikolai II.  In 1918 he returned to Vilna.  Under the influence of the thriving Jewish cultural life of Vilna, he began to act on the stage in Yiddish at Lipovski’s “Folks-teater” (People’s theater), initially appearing in A. Vayter’s drama Der shtumer (The mute), and soon he acquired a great name as an actor and as a director.  His performances with the Vilna Troupe—in which, among other roles, he played the tsadek (saint) of Miropol in An-ski’s Der dibek (The dybbuk), his adaptations in Alter Kacyzne’s Der dukus (The count) and in Osip Dimov’s Shma yisroel (Hear, O Israel), as well as in Kayin (Cain), Hamlet (Hamlet), and other works—elevated the Yiddish theater in Poland, between the two world wars, to a very high level.  Morevski also began to write at an early age.  While he was still a student in the Odessa and St. Petersburg drama schools, he was already writing about theater, and later—together with his ascent as an actor—he grew as a writer as well.  He debuted in print in Yiddish with a polemic against Zalmen Reyzen in Vilna’s Letste nayes (Latest news), and from that point in time he frequently appeared in the Yiddish press and periodicals, such as: Frimorgn (Morning) in Riga; Di vokh (The week), Der tog (The day), and Lebn (Life) in Vilna; Der khoydesh (The month), Der fraynd (The friend), Unzer ekspres (Our express), Der moment (The moment), and Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves)—in Warsaw; Folksblat (People’s newspaper) and Tageblat (Daily newspaper)—in Lodz; Der tog in New York; Di prese (The press) and Idishe tsaytung (Jewish newspaper) in Buenos Aires.  He contributed as well to the anthologies: Ringen (Links), Vayter-bukh (Volume for Vayter), Teolit (Theater and literature), and Di bime (The stage), among other Yiddish-language publications around the world, in which he published articles and treatments of theater and literature, as well as contemporary cultural matters.
            At the beginning of WWII, he was in Bialystok under Soviet control, and there he worked with the Yiddish state theater.  After Germany entered the war against Soviet Russia in 1941, he was evacuated with his theater to Central Asia.  When he returned to his hometown in 1945 after the destruction of Vilna and sought to appear on stage in a poetry recital in Yiddish, the Soviet authorities refused to give him permission, and he thus returned to Soviet Russia and acted there in Russian.  He also turned his attention to research on Shakespeare and gave lectures on the topic in Moscow academic circles.  After seventeen years absence, Morevski returned to Warsaw in 1956, and there he frequently wrote for Yiddish publications.  He also published articles in Di goldene keyt (The golden chain) in Tel Aviv and penned his memoirs.  At age forty (1928), he had written twenty-five installments of his memoirs for Di prese (August-September 1928).  In 1936 he published a volume entitled Kinder-yorn (Childhood years); and in 1956 “after seventeen years of Soviet reality” (preface), he again set to work writing those memoirs.  The result was: Ahin un tsurik, zikhroynes un rayoynes fun a yidn, an aktyor (To there and back, memoirs and thoughts of a Jew, an actor), 4 vols. (Warsaw, 1958–1963) (Warsaw: Yidbukh), vol. 1 (1958), 373 pp., vol. 2 (1959), 286 pp., vol. 3, covering the years 1910-1919 (1960), 528 pp., vol. 4 (1963), 410 pp.  From his earlier years, he published in book form: a translation into Yiddish in verse of Karl Gutzkow’s play, Uriel Acosta (Warsaw, 1921), 128 pp.; a translation of Leonid Andreev’s Der vos krigt di petsh (He who gets slapped [original Tot, kto poluchaet poshchechiny]) (Warsaw, 1921); and his own work Shaylok un shekspir, zibn kapitlen shekspirologye (Shylock and Shakespeare, seven chapters in Shakespeare studies) (Vilna, 1937), 95 pp.  He died in Warsaw.

Morevski at left with unidentified actor

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 2 (New York, 1934), with a detailed bibliography through 1931; M. Vaykhert, Teater un drame (Theater and drama), vol. 2 (Vilna, 1926), pp. 18-20, 38-41, 122-24, 126-30; Vaykhert, Varshe (Warsaw) (Tel Aviv, 1961), see index; M. Shvarts, in Forverts (New York) (July 25, 1932); M. Kitay, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (December 24, 1937); Kitay, Unzere shrayber un kinstler (Our writers and artists) (Warsaw: Jewish Universal Library, 1938), pp. Unzere shrayber un kinstler (Our writers and artists) (Warsaw: Jewish Universal Library, 1938), pp. 146-52; Y. Yeshurin, ed., Vilne (Vilna), anthology (New York, 1935), see index; Meylekh Ravitsh, Mayn leksikon (My lexicon), vol. 2 (Montreal, 1945), see index; “Vegn zayn arbet af shekspir-pyesn” (On his work on Shakespeare’s plays), Eynikeyt (Moscow) (April 13, 1946); Sh. Katsherginski, Tsvishn hamer un serp (Between hammer and sickle) (Paris, 1949), p. 83; H. Vaynroykh, Blut af der zun (Blood on the sun) (New York, 1950), pp. 93-94; Z. Turkov, Farloshene shtern (Extinguished stars), vols. 1 and 2 (Buenos Aires, 1953); Turkov, Teater-zikhroynes fun a shturmisher tsayt (Theater memoirs from a tempestuous time) (Buenos Aires, 1956), see index; Turkov, in Goldene keyt (Tel Aviv) 40 (1961); B. Kutsher, Geven amol varshe (As Warsaw once was) (Paris, 1955), see index; B. Mark, in Yidishe shriftn (Warsaw) (December 1956); Y. Turkov-Grudberg, in Folks-shtime (Warsaw) (March 31, 1956); H. Kon, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (September 5, 1957); Y. Pat, in Tsukunft (New York) (February 1957); Pat, in Der veker (New York) (July 1, 1958); A. Volf-Yasni, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (February 13, 1959); M. Grosman, in Heymish (Tel Aviv) (December 1960); Y. Emyot, in Forverts (April 28, 1961); Y. Rapoport, in Di yidishe post (Melbourne) (April 28, 1961); Yankev Glatshteyn, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (September 3, 1961); Glatshteyn, Mit mayne fartog-bikher (With my daybreak books) (Tel Aviv, 1963), pp. 399-405; Lili Berger, Eseyen un skitsn (Essays and sketches) (Warsaw, 1962), pp. 191-97.
Zaynvl Diamant

Monday, 14 August 2017


            He was the author [editor?] of Khurbn dinov, sonik, dibetsk (The Holocaust in Dynów, Sanok, [and] Dubiecko) (New York, 1949/1950), 156 pp.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 368.


            He published poetry in Yudishe fohn (Jewish banner) in Johannesburg, South Africa.  He later made his way to Rhodesia, where he died of malaria.

Source: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2.


YANKEV MARINOV (JACOB MARINOFF) (December 3, 1869-October 27, 1964)
            He was born in Sernik (Serniki), near Pinsk, Polesia.  His father Meyer Morotshnik was a tailor, later becoming a miller.  His mother ran a dry-goods store.  He was the ninth in a family of thirteen children.  He studied in religious elementary school and with his father.  In his bar mitzvah year he became a blacksmith in the village of Nieczatów, near Stolin, and he would come home every Sabbath.  Meanwhile, his parents moved to Odessa, and when he once (in 1887) came home by raft, he found that his mother had died.  The sentimental young blacksmith took his mother’s death so strongly to heart that he became seriously ill, was no longer able to return to his smithy, and became a tailor.  So as not to have to become a soldier, in 1891 he fled to London, and there over the course of two years he worked in sweatshops, came into contact with laborers who had radical ideas, and under their influence became a socialist.  In 1893 Marinov arrived in New York and formed ties with Yoyel (Joel) Entin, Benyomen Faygenboym, Gershon Rozentsvayg, and other Jewish socialists.  In early 1894 he settled in Boston, where his father was living from earlier on, and there he began writing poetry.  His first poem—entitled “Mi vami haholekhim” (Who’s who that is going) [Exodus, 10:8]—was published in Emes (Truth) (July 12, 1895) in Boston, edited by Morris Winchevsky.  Due to his weak health, he traveled that same year to Denver, Colorado, where he supported himself as a blacksmith, and in his free time interacted with such writers as: Yehoash, Dr. Chaim Spivak, Dr. Adolf Tsederboym, N. M. Babad, S. Lopukhov, and Sharkanski.  Marinov was also active in the Socialist Labor Party, served for a time as its city organizer, and remained after the split in 1897 in the De Leon faction.  In those years he published poetry in: Arbayter tsaytung (Workers’ newspaper) and Forverts (Forward) in New York.  In 1908 he and Yehoash came to New York.  He published in Forverts stories as well, which he had translated from other literatures; he published in Tsukunft (Future) in New York; was an internal contributor to the daily newspaper Di idishe velt (The Jewish world) in New York, edited by M. Bukanski; and later he became the manager of the humor magazine Der groyser kibitzer (The great kibitzer), founded by Yoysef Tunkel, Yankev Adler, and Hirshl Hurvits in 1908.  Together with these same three colleagues, in 1909 he founded Der groyser kundes (The great prankster), for which he was initially manager and, after Yoysef Tunkel returned to Warsaw, he became editor of the magazine, a position he held for nineteen years.  Der groyser kundes—“a magazine of humor, jokes, and satire”—grew under Marinov’s editorship into an important literary and political weekly, which fought against hypocrisy in Jewish life in the United States—mainly against trash in the daily Yiddish press.  Under Marinov it also afforded him the opportunity to develop the genre of feature pieces by humorists who remained prominent in Yiddish literature and the Yiddish press, such as: Moyshe Nadir, Der Lebediker, A. Vohliner, B. Rivkin, A. Zeldin, Y. Adler, Khone Notesfeld, and others; and he brought up a large group of caricaturists, including: Lopa, Sh. Raskin, M. Laub, Zuni Moud, R. Lifshits, Art Yong, Ben Irov, and Yosl Kotler, among others.  He also attracted as contributor to Der groyser kundes such writers as: Sholem-Aleykhem, Yehoash, Avrom Reyzen, M. L. Halpern, A. Lutski, and others.  Through his magazine, Marinov carried out collections for the Jewish teachers’ seminary, the Sholem-Aleichem schools, for the Perets monument in Warsaw, support for Mendele Moykher-Sforim’s family, and other causes.  Together with A. Vohliner, he published the literary anthologies: Humor un satire (Humor and satire), vol. 1, “poetry” (New York, 1912), 360 pp.; vol. 2, “stories, sketches, and human-interest pieces” (New York, 1912), 331 pp.; vol. 3 “scholarship and popular humor” (New York, 1912), 300 pp.  He published his own poetry collection as well: Shpil un kamf (Play and fight) (New York, 1938), 303 pp.; Mir veln zayn (We shall survive) (New York, 1944), 62 pp.; Shtark un munter (Strong and cheerful) (New York, 1947), 62 pp.  He lived into old age at the Workmen’s Circle home in the Bronx and died there in New York.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Yoyel Entin, Yidishe poetn (Yiddish poets), part 2 (New York, 1927), pp. 195-203; Avrom Reyzen, in Tsukunft (New York) (May 1931); A. Reyzen, in Di feder (New York) (1939, 1945); Moyshe Nadir, Teg fun mayne teg (Days of my days) (New York, 1935), pp. 220ff; Toyznt yor pinsk (1000 years of Pinsk), ed. Dr. B. Hofman (New York, 1941), pp. 330-31; E. Shulman, Geshikhte fun der yidisher literatur in amerike (History of Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1943), pp. 164-66; Y. Khaykin, Yidishe bleter in amerike (Yiddish newspapers in America) (New York, 1946), pp. 210-14; N. B. Minkov, Pyonern fun yidisher poezye in amerike (Pioneers of Yiddish poetry in America), vol. 3 (New York, 1956), pp. 169-218; Minkov, in Gerekhtikeyt (New York) (January 1952; June 1955); Der Lebediker, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (December 26, 1954); B. Daymondshteyn, Eseyen (Essays) (Tohongo, CA, 1958), pp. 23-24; Kh. Gotesfeld, in Forverts (New York) (October 23, 1958; November 7, 1958); Y. Shmulevitsh, in Forverts (February 21, 1959); Arbeter ring, boyer un tuer (Workmen’s Circle, builders and leaders) (New York, 1962), p. 234.
Zaynvl Diamant

Sunday, 13 August 2017


            He hailed from Riga, Latvia.  He was knowledgeable of languages, and between the two world wars he was a speaker for the press division of the Latvian foreign ministry.  He contributed to the Riga Yiddish daily newspaper Frimorgn (Morning) and was the author of a series of Yiddish-language guides to Latvia which the Latvian government published for Jewish tourists from other countries.  These books were: Letland, ir kultur, ekonomik, melukhe-ordenung, politik, gezelshaftlekhkeyt, kurortn (Latvia, its culture, economy, arrangement of state, politics, society, resorts) (Riga: Press division of the Latvian foreign ministry, 1929), 128 pp.; Ilustrirter firer durkh letland (Illustrated guide through Latvia) (Riga: Alef, 1932), 82 pp.; 15 yor letland, 1918-1933, grindung un antviklung fun der republic (Fifteen years of Latvia, 1918-1933, founding and development of the republic) (Riga: Alef, 1933), 80 pp.; Latvye un ire kurortn (Latvia and its resorts) (Riga: Livonya, 1933), 80 pp.; Dos naye letland, politishe, ekonomishe un kulturele oyflebung (The new Latvia, political, economic, and cultural revival) (Riga: Livonya, 1934), 88 pp.  His fate since WWII remains unknown.

Sources: M. Gerts, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (February 29, 1932); Gerts, 25 yor yidishe prese in letland (25 years of the Yiddish press in Latvia) (Riga, 1933); Yahadut latviya (Judaism in Latvia) (Tel Aviv, 1953); in the chronology in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (September 1, 1933); Yivo-bleter (Vilna) 6.1.
Zaynvl Diamant


            She was born in a town near Minsk, Byelorussia.  She lived in Homel (Gomel), Borisov, and Minsk.  For many years she was a teacher in Jewish educational institutions in Byelorussia.  She published articles on pedagogical issues in Af di vegn tsu der nayer shul (On the road to the new school) (Moscow, 1923-1925).  She was the author (with L. Tsart) of the school reader, In land fun di sovetn (In the land of the soviets) (Minsk, 1928), 352 pp., second edition (1929), 278 pp., and third edition (1931), 248 pp.; Di natsyonale frage in sovetnfarband (The nationality question in the Soviet Union) (Minsk, 1927), 29 pp.; Di alte un naye shul (The old and new school), a pamphlet for mass readership (Minsk, 1929), 151 pp.  In 1931 she was accused of Jewish nationalism and from that point in time she disappeared without a trace.

Sources: Oktyabr (Minsk) (August 25, 1931); M. Anilovitsh and M. Yofe, Shriftn fun psikhologye un pedagogik (Writings on psychology and pedagogy) 1 (Vilna: YIVO, 1933), p. 474; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            He was born in Courland, and he later lived in Latvia.  He was the son of an itinerant school teacher.  At age twelve he was turned over to a saddler, and he later worked in Riga.  At age twenty for the first time, he began to read books, served in the military, and sought to take control over his life; he sold newspapers on the street.  He published several poems in Sokolov’s Telegraf (Telegraph), Der veg (The path), and Roman-tsaytung (Fiction newspaper), as well as elsewhere.  In 1909 he brought out a small collection of poetry, entitled Elegyen (Elegies) (Vilna, 30 pp.).  In 1913 he brought another booklet of poems, Demerung (Twilight), and in 1921 his last poetry collection, Yiesh (Despair) (Libave [Liepāja]: Universal-biblyotek, 39 pp.).  These were pessimistic poems, as well as translations from Russian.  He died in Riga.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (July 8, 1927); M. Gerts, 25 yor yidishe prese in letland (25 years of the Yiddish press in Latvia) (Riga, 1933), pp., 39-48; A. Tsaytlin, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (January 27, 1961).
Yankev Kahan


SHMUEL MARVIL (1906-1943)
            He was born in a town near Warsaw.  He attended religious elementary school, synagogue study hall, and yeshiva.  He was employed in a Warsaw office, and later he engaged in business.  He debuted in print in A. M. Vaysenberg’s (Weissenberg’s) journal Inzer hofening (Our hope) in 1927 with a biographical sketch in four acts: Di libe (The love), published serially.  He contributed reportage pieces and sketches to Ekspres (Express) in Warsaw and to a variety of newspapers in the provinces.  In book form: Di makhsheyfe (The sorceress), a dramatic poem (Warsaw, 1930), 16 pp.; Der vanderer, dramatishe poeme in dray bilder (The wanderer, a dramatic poem in three scenes) (Warsaw, 1935), 40 pp.; Trern in der nakht, lider un poeme (Tears in the night, poetry) (Warsaw, 1937), 63 pp.; Ver arop un ver aroyf (Who’s down and who’s up) (Warsaw, 1934), 47 pp.; Shoyel hameylekh (King Saul) (Warsaw, 1935), 47 pp.  He was confined in the Warsaw Ghetto.  His poem “Tsu di hern” (To the sirs), written during the years of the Holocaust, was a cry of protest to the world which was remaining silent before the annihilation of the Jewish people.  A second poem of his, “Di gas” (The street), describes the tragic condition of the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.  He was murdered by the Nazis.

Sources: Y. Bershteyn, “Trern in der nakht” (Tears in the night), Heftn (Notebooks) (Warsaw) (April 5, 1939); B. Mark, Umgekumene shrayber fun di getos un lagern (Murdered writers from the ghettos and camps) (Warsaw, 1954), pp. 68, 109, 122, 128, 129.
Benyomen Elis


PINKHES MORDEL (1859-July 19, 1934)
            He was born in a village near Shat (Seta), Kovno district, Lithuania, and he later lived in Elizavetgrad, southern Russian, where he survived the pogrom of 1881.  He then joined an “Am Olam” (Eternal people) group [aimed at establishing agricultural colonies in the United States] with whom he came to America.  He lived for a time in New York and New Jersey, and from 1884 he was living in Philadelphia.  He was a cofounder of the “Ohave tsiyon” (Lovers of Zion) group in Philadelphia.  For many years he worked in the field of Hebrew education, translated Sefer yetsira (The book of creation) into English with a commentary in Hebrew and English.  He also contributed to: Dos likht (The light) in 1887, Der idisher kempfer (The Jewish fighter) in 1906, the journal Der shtern (The star) in 1907, and Di idishe velt (The Jewish world), in which he placed an essay on Hammurabi, 1914-1934—all in Philadelphia; and Hashiloaḥ (The shiloah), Haivri (The Jew), Hatoran (The duty officer), and Leshonenu (Our language)—in New York (1900-1934).  He died in Philadelphia.

Sources: D. B. Tirkel, in Pinkes fun amopteyl fun yivo (Records of the American division of YIVO), vol. 1 (New York, 1927-1928), p. 261; S. Frihman, Fuftsik yor idish lebn in filadelfye (Fifty years of Jewish life in Philadelphia) (1935); Y. Tsuzmer, Beikve hador (In the footprints of a generation) (New York, 1957), see index; obituary notices in the Yiddish press.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            The son of the author and publisher Yude-Leyb Morgenshtern, he was born in Warsaw, Poland.  Until WWI he was the owner of a Jewish print shop, a publishing house, and a bookshop in Warsaw.  He published poetry and humorous sketches in: Der veg (The path), Romantsaytung (Fiction newspaper), and Der shtrahl (The beam [of light])—in Warsaw; among other serials.  He edited literary collections and holiday sheets (1905-1914) in Warsaw, and the monthly Der heyrats farmitler (The wedding middleman), which after its first issue changed to Der heyrats-farmitler-di yugend-velt (The wedding middleman-The world of youth) in Warsaw (1908) for five issues.

Sources: A. Kirzhnits, Di yidishe prese in der gevezener rusisher imperye, 1823-1916 (The Yiddish press in the former Russian empire, 1823-1916) (Moscow, 1930), see index; A. Zak, In onhoyb fun a friling (At the beginning of a spring) (Buenos Aires, 1962), pp. 72-74, 77.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            He was born in Ostrów-Mazowiecka (Ostrov-Mazovyetsk), Poland, a descendant of the Kotsker Rebber.  Until age eighteen he studied in religious elementary school, yeshiva, and on his own; later, through self-study he acquired secular knowledge.  Over the years 1919-1921, he was active in the party of the right Labor Zionists in Warsaw and supported himself giving Hebrew lessons—later, he emigrated to the United States.  He graduated from the Jewish teachers’ seminary and for many years worked as a teacher at the Jewish National Labor Alliance in New York, while at the same time remaining active in the Labor Zionist Party, in Histadrut actions, and mainly in the “Jewish Vegetarian Society.”  He published poetry, articles, and translations from Hebrew, Russian, Polish, and English in: Di vegetarishe velt (The vegetarian world) in New York (1921-1922); and Der vegetarisher gedank (The vegetarian idea) in Philadelphia (1932) and Los Angeles (1935).  He also contributed to: Fraye arbeter-shtime (Free voice of labor) and Der idisher kemfer (The Jewish fighter), among other serials, in New York.  He edited Dos kol fun dem vegetaryer (Voice of the vegetarian) (New York, 1952), 94 pp., in which he also placed a poem and translations from Hebrew and English.  He also wrote under such pen names as “Mem-Mem.”  He died in New York.

Sources: Der tog (New York) (June 8, 1952); Idisher kemfer (New York) (June 20, 1952); Fraye arbeter-shtime (New York) (July 4, 1952); Dos kol fun dem vegetaryer (Voice of the vegetarian) (New York, 1952), p. 6.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


            The pseudonym of Y. Katshko, he was born in Pyetrikov, Poland.  He later studied in Lodz, where he worked as an itinerant school teacher, a “writer” (for others), who taught cooks and serving girls Hebrew and how to write in it, and he was thus dubbed “Yankl Lerer” (Yankl the teacher).  He also engaged in matchmaking and appeared as an entertainer at weddings.  He wrote an entire series of storybooks—originals and translations—published in the main by the Warsaw book dealers Y. G. Munk, L. Morgenshtern, and others.  These storybooks were extremely popular.  The greatest popularity was achieved by Mayse mishloyshe akhim (Story of three brothers), one of the most celebrated of Yiddish stories over all.  The first edition—“Story of three brothers / a very beautiful, magnificent tale of three brothers, great men, a tale of wondrous events, / published by Reb Yisroel of Lodz” (Warsaw: Shmuel Orgelbrand, 1870), 3 parts—was apparently already in 1872 reprinted with the title Mayse mishloyshe akhin (Story of three brothers), “a beautiful, magnificent tale of three great brothers, published and owned by Y. G. Munk, Warsaw”—and from that time was issued in numerous printings, primarily by the publishing house of L. Morgenshtern in Warsaw.  This story, written in the style of Oriental tales, is in a popular Yiddish through and through.  The central morale of the story is the reward for good deeds.  The plot of the story: Each of the three brothers takes on the observance of a distinctive mitzvah which people ordinarily do not assiduously heed; one takes on the mitzvah of washing the hands before meals, the second the afternoon meal on the Sabbath, and the third the mitzvah of the evening meal at the end of the Sabbath.  The author takes them with his wonderful fantasy as they roam through the Orient, over deserts full of deadly dangers; they put up with enormous difficulties, face up against mighty temptations, perform acts of devotion, and each of them must execute the mitzvah that he has taken on, and in recompense they are rewarded in bizarre ways: they marry princesses, become rulers of kingdoms, and live in extraordinary palaces.  An immense impact on Hassidic circles in Poland and Galicia was exerted in its time by his anti-Hassidic folk-satire R’ simkhe plakhte oder der velt-shvindler (Reb Simkhe Plakhte or the world swindler), which appeared in the 1870s and 1880s and was later republished in a variety of places and printings, such as: Vilna in 1892 and 1896 (54 pp.); Warsaw in 1900 (54 pp.) and in 1909 (58 pp.); and Biłgoraj in 1911 (by Amkroyt & Fraynd of Przemyśl, 64 pp.).  (Many years later, Yankev Preger wrote a play entitled Simkhe plakhte, as did Y. Y. Trunk compose a long story under the same title.)  The popularity of his satirical work moved him to write another satire: Der gliklekher nar oder der khaver fun simkhe plakhte (The happy fool or the pal of Simkhe Plakhte) (1882).  Of his other work, he was well-known for his popular tales: Shabes koydesh in gan-eydn, mikdesh meylekh (The holy Sabbath in the Garden of Eden, Temple of the king), “a story that transpired in the time of the saintly rabbi and brilliant M., author of Mikdesh meylekh” (Vilna: Yitskhok Funk, 1897), 23 pp., in which he described the diabolical splendidness of Ashmodai’s palaces somewhere in the desolate forests of Poland and the desirable bedrooms of the wicked shrew of the night.  The story was also reprinted many times.  Also very popular were his works: R’ khatskele oder di getraye libe (Reb Khatskele or the devoted love) (Warsaw, 1882), 72 pp.; and Di mayse mishney shutfim un shney katsovim (The tale of two partners and two butchers) (Vilna, 1899), 45 pp.  His translations include: Magelona, di kroyn-printsesin fon neapol (Magelona, the crown princess of Naples), “in two parts, translated from German” (Warsaw, 1881), written in a Germanized Yiddish current at that time; Di sheyne helena (The beautiful Helena), one of his last publications (Warsaw, 1911), 24 pp.; Di sheyne blimkhe genofefe (The lovely Blimkhe Genofefe) (Warsaw, 1881).  Morgenshtern was also said to have written a collection of his wedding entertainment poems.  “Yankl Lerer had a juicy, folkish language,” wrote Y. Y. Trunk, “a great deal of wonderful compositional influences, and his poetic epic, although primitive and naïve, had in it the great style of a storyteller.”

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2; Dr. Ts. Cohen, in Tsukunft (New York) (February 1930); N. Mayzil, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (January 29, 1937); I. Manger, Noente geshtaltn (Close images) (Warsaw, 1938; New York, 1961), pp. 129-37; Y. Y. Trunk, in Der poylisher id, yearbook (New York, 1942); Shmuel Niger, Dertseylers un romanistn (Storytellers and novelists) (New York, 1946), pp. 27-28; Entsiklopediya shel galuyot (Encyclopedia of the Diaspora), section on Brisk (Brest), Lithuania (Jerusalem-Tel Aviv, 1954); Entsiklopedye fun di goles-lender (Encyclopedia from the countries of the diaspora) (Tel Aviv, 1955), col. 347; Khayim Leyb Fuks, in Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), pp. 192-94.
Zaynvl Diamant

Saturday, 12 August 2017


YOYSEF MORGENSHTERN (b. March 10, 1889)
            He was born Kapulye (Kopyl), Minsk district, Byelorussia.  In his youth he belonged to Pirḥe Tsiyon (Flowers of Zion).  In 1902 he moved to Warsaw to study a trade, but for taking part in a labor demonstration, he was arrested, thrown in jail for a month, and sent back to Kopyl with a convict procession.  In 1903 he arrived in New York and worked as a tailor.  In 1905 he settled in Cleveland, where he was a peddler, a cigar maker, and later became a manufacturer of electrical instruments.  He was active in the community with the Labor Zionists, in the socialist territorialist party, and later in the pro-Soviet IKOR (Yidishe kolonizatsye organizatsye in rusland [Jewish colonization organization in Russia]) and Ambidzhan (All-American Society for Aid to Birobidzhan).  He wrote articles on Jewish immigration issues for Idishe velt (Jewish world) in Cleveland and published chapters of his memoirs in Yidishe kultur (Jewish culture) in New York.  In book form he published: Ikh gedenk di teg (I remember the days), foreword by N. Mayzil (New York, 1962), 262 pp.  In 1959 he established in Tel Aviv the “Vaynper-Morgenshtern Fund” for translating works from Yiddish into Hebrew.  He was last living in Hollywood, Florida.
Benyomen Elis

Friday, 11 August 2017


YOKHONEN MORGENSHTERN (December 1905-May 6, 1943)
            He was born in Zamość, Poland.  He attended religious elementary school and a Polish public school.  He was a member of the central committee of the Labor Zionists-Zionist Socialist Party.  He was secretary of the League for Working Israel in Poland.  He contributed to and for a time edited Zamoshtsher shtime (Voice of Zamość) (1928-1939); and Bafrayung-arbeter shtime (Liberation-Voice of labor) and Dos vort (The word) in Warsaw.  During the Nazi occupation, he was confined in the Warsaw Ghetto, a member of the presidium of the Jewish national committee and of the headquarters of the Jewish fighting organization, and he took part in the major battles in the uprising of April 1943.  He was led on April 29 from the burning ghetto through the underground canals to the Aryan side of the city, where he hid in a bunker that was discovered on May 6 by the Gestapo and was taken to the S. S. commander’s office where he was shot on the spot.  His brother LIBER MORGENSHTERN wrote poetry in the Ludmir ghetto.

Sources: M. Nayshtat, Khurbn un oyfshtand fun di yidn in varshe (Holocaust and uprising of the Jews in Warsaw) (Tel Aviv, 1948), pp. 514-16; B. Mark, Dos bukh fun gvure (The book of valor) (Lodz, 1949), p. 123; Moshe Tamari, Zamoshts (Zamość) (Tel Aviv, 1953), p. 289; N. Kantorovitsh, in Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), pp. 339, 342; B. Ayzenkop, in Pinkes zamoshtsh (Records of Zamość) (Buenos Aires, 1957), p. 984.
Yankev Kahan