Wednesday, 14 June 2017

ARN LEYELES-GLANTS (ARN-TUVYE, ARN GLANTS-LEYELES, GLANZ-LEYELESS)

ARN LEYELES-GLANTS (ARN-TUVYE, ARN GLANTS-LEYELES, GLANZ-LEYELESS) (March 5, 1889-December 30, 1966)
            He was born in Vlotslavek (Włocławek), Warsaw district, Poland, into a family that traced its roots to Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller [1578-1654], the author of Tosafot yom tov (his commentary on the Mishna).  In 1892 he was brought to Lodz where his father, Oyzer-Zalmen Glants, who wrote from time to time for Hamelits (The spectator), was a teacher in the craftsmen’s Talmud Torah.  That same year he began studying in his father Talmud Torah, graduating in 1901, and then he went on to graduate as well from the local Russian commercial school.  In 1905 he made his way to London and until 1908 studied as the University of London.  At the same time he was active in the Zionist Socialist Party.  At the end of 1909 he came to the United States, settled in New York, was coopted onto the central committee of the party of socialist territorialists, and on assignment for it traveled around America and Canada.  Over the years 1910-1913, he studied literature in courses given at Columbia University in New York.  In those years he began to lead a fight for a Yiddish school curriculum and for the respectability of Yiddish in America.  He was among the founders and a teacher at the first Yiddish school—on Henry Street—in New York.  He also helped to found the Yiddish schools in Toronto and Winnipeg, Canada, Rochester, New York, and Sioux City, Iowa.  In 1911 he was in the delegation that traveled to the governor of Alaska to intercede on behalf of opening there a center for Jewish immigration.  In 1912 he was a delegate of the American socialist territorialists to the territorialist congress in Vienna and spoke there on the possibility of Jewish colonization in the United States.  He was director (1913-1914) of the Jewish National Radical School in Chicago.  He also assisted in creating the schools of the Workmen’s Circle in America, and he cofounded the Jewish Cultural Society (1930), Tsiko (Tsentrale yidishe kultur-organizatsye, Central Yiddish Cultural Organization) (1937), the World Jewish Culture Congress (1948), and the American division of YIVO, among others.  He was for many years president of the Yiddish PEN Club, the Y. L. Perets writers’ association, and the relief committee for refugee writers after WWI.  He was a teacher of Yiddish literature at the People’s University connected with the Sholem-Aleykhem Folk Institute in New York (1917-1918), and later at the Jewish teachers’ seminary, at the senior Sholem-Aleykhem courses, and in the Workmen’s Circle middle school.  He was popular as well as a speaker and lecturer.  In 1924 he visited Poland, where he gave speeches in various cities around the country.  His writing work began with correspondence pieces from London in the organ of the Zionist socialists, Der nayer veg (The new way) in Vilna (1906-1907), and with articles in the monthly journal Dos folk (The people) in New York (1906), edited by N. Sirkin.  In 1909 he began publishing poetry (under the pen name A. Frakht) in Dr. Chaim Zhitlovsky’s Dos naye leben (The new life) in New York, and over the years 1912-1914 he had responsibility for the section “Fun dem idishen leben” (From Jewish life), published critical treatises on books, and edited the territorialist supplement Unzer vort (Our word).  From 1911 he contributed to: Dovid Pinski’s Yudishe vokhnshrift (Jewish weekly writings), as well as Dos naye land (The new land), Tsukunft (Future), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), Gerekhtikeyt (Justice), and Fraye arbeter-shtime (Free voice of labor)—all in New York; in these, aside from poetry (using the pseudonym A. Tobtash as well), he wrote journalistic and literary critical articles.  In 1912 he published (under the pen name Agni) a series of poems in the serial he edited, Folks-shtime (People’s voice) in New York.  He placed work (1912-1913) in Yidishes tageblat (Jewish daily newspaper) in New York, and edited the pedagogical journal Der nayer dor (The new generation) in Chicago (two issues).  In 1914 he published in Fraye arbeter-shtime poems for the first time under the pseudonym “A. Leyeles.”  From November 1914, he was a regular internal contributor to the daily newspaper Der tog (The day) in New York, for which at different times he edited the labor chronicle, served as literary editor, theater and drama critic, and administrative editor, and published thousands of articles on all manner of literary and political topics, always attacking the theory and methods of the Communists who, during the show trials in Moscow (1936-1937), decried him as a Trotskyist.  Every Sabbath for many years, he ran the column “Velt un vort” (World and word), literary criticism of Jewish and Gentile writers.  For a time he published feature pieces entitled “Zayfenblozen” (Soap bubbles), using the pen name “Pikalimini.”  His first book of poems, Labirint, lieder (Labyrinth, poetry) (New York, 1918), 124 pp., as well as the other poems that he published at the time, announced a new direction in Yiddish poetry, a direction which was strengthened by his theoretical articles about it in the literary organ In zikh (Introspective) in New York (1919), which he—together with Yankev Glatshteyn and N. B. Minkov—began publishing at the time.  The three editors also attracted in this new direction a group of young poets, including: B. Alkvit, M. Afranel, Bernard Louis, Ruvn Ludvig, and Yankev Stodolski, among others—and together they brought out the collection In zikh, a zamlung introspektive lider (In zikh, an anthology of introspective poetry).  “Inzikhizm” was the Yiddish name for “introspectivism.”  Its credo was formulated in the following points: “(1) use simple language, but always apply the exact and not only a decorative word; (2) establish a new rhythm, like the manifestation of new moods, and introduce free verse though not as the sole method of writing poetry; (3) allow for absolute freedom in selecting subject matter; (4) demonstrate an image—the introspectivists believe that poetry must convey details exactly, and one should not use vague generalizations; (5) create poetry which is firm and clear, never imprecise and hazy; (6) be focused, because concentration is the quintessence of poetry.”  In his justification for the new direction, Leyeles wrote: “Every new poem should be a revelation and a work of creation….  The transformation finds its expression in the ‘how.’….  It is a truism that the ‘what’ is confined, whether we call it subject matter, mood, feelings, experience, or thoughts—all of these already exist….  Transformation must seek new forms.  New forms are the expression of new content….  Is Homer old?  And the Bible?  And Dante?  And Shakespeare?  And Goethe?  Yes—they are old.  Furthermore, for me they are not merely literature.  Their value is immense—it is the value of monuments.”  Later, though, he revised his views.  Earlier, noted Yankev Glatshteyn, he “placed free verse above rhyme and regulated rhythm,…but he returned to regulated rhythm.  Contrary to all declarations regarding new rhythms, he later rigorously sought to restrain his cry…and the same poet gradually allowed himself to be conquered by the Bible, by Shakespeare, by Homer, by Y. L. Perets, and Yehoash’s translation of Tanakh.”  “A long and often passionate literary polemic,” wrote Zalmen Reyzen, “developed around the emergence of the Introspectivists,…but the criticism recognized that introspectivism succeeded in enrich Yiddish poetry with new forms…especially in the realm of free verse, and it exerted an influence on youthful Yiddish poetry in the United States and in the entire world.”  Leyeles went on to reach a new level in his creative work in his messianic dramatic works, Shloyme molkho (Solomon Molkho) and Osher lemlen (Osher Lemlen), in which the author strove—with the background of Jewish and general history—to do justice to actual Jewish and general issues.  At the same time, he continued to publish poetry on a variety of motifs: society and the individual, the world and the person, time and the environment.  He translated into Yiddish: Edgar Allan Poe, “Der rob” (The Raven), “Anabel li” (Annabel Lee), and “Eldorado” (Eldorado); L. Senean (?), “Tsu der geshikhte fun der yidisher filologye” (On the history of Yiddish philology); Leon Trotsky, “Di rusishe revolutsye” (The Russian Revolution), in installments in Tog (1931-1932; and other writings from Russian, Polish, and English.  He also wrote at various times for: Tsukunft, Der oyfkum (Arise), Undzere bukh (Our book), Der groyser kundes (The great prankster), Der hamer (The hammer), Di vokh (The week), Der veker (The alarm), Idish (Yiddish), Leivick and Opatoshu’s Zamlbikher (Anthologies), Loglen (Skins), Fortshrit (Progress), Der farband (The union), Idisher kemfer (Jewish fighter), Der fraynd (The friend), Kultur un dertsiung (Culture and education), Kinder-zhurnal (Children’s magazine), Kinder-land (Children’s land), Shul un heym (School and home), Unzer tsayt (Our time), and Svive (Environs)—in New York; Khalyastre (Gang), Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves), Haynt (Today), and Bikher-velt (Book world)—in Warsaw; Kultur (Culture) in Chicago; Di goldene keyt (The golden chain) in Tel Aviv; and elsewhere.  He also wrote under such pen names as: B. Albin, A. Bornshteyn, B. Valenshteyn, A. Les, Yame Pimsenholts (for children’s poetry), and Shoyel Kleynberger.
            Among his published books: Der Territorialismus ist die einzige Lösung der Judenfrage (Territorialism is the only solution to the Jewish problem) (Zurich, 1913), 64 pp.; Labirint, lieder (New York: M. N. Mayzel, 1918), 128 pp. (sixty-seven poems and the longer poem “Yude halevi” [Judah Halevi]); Yankev vaserman, ophandlung (Jacob Vaserman, essay), a monograph (New York: Idish, 1919), 45 pp.; translation of Kunst, di filosofye fun kunst (Art, the philosophy of art) by Broder Christiansen (New York: Di heym, 1920), 2 vols., 350 pp.; Di mayse fun di hundert (The story of the 100), a pogrom poem (New York, 1921), 32 pp.; Yungharbst, lider (Young autumn, poetry) (Warsaw: Kultur-lige, 1922), 137 pp. (forty poems and Di mayse fun di hundert); Shloyme molkho, a dramatic poem in ten scenes (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1926), 194 pp., initially published in Tsukunft in New York (1926)—“a work that introduces messianic ideas of world salvation by the exotic super figure,” wrote M. Olgin, “….a work that occupies a place in the first tier of Yiddish literature” (staged in the Vilna ghetto in 1942 and in displaced persons camps in Germany in 1947); Rondos un andere lider (Rondos and other poems) (New York: In zikh, 1926), 128 pp. (thirteen rondos, five triolets, a sonnet cycle “Harbst” [Autumn], the poem “Der barg” [The mountain], and forty other poems); Osher lemlen, a drama in eight scenes (Vilna: B. Kletskin, 1928), 99 pp. (the second messianic drama in which the conflict between the vision of redemption and the actuality of salvation takes place); Ziger un bazigte (Conqueror and conquered), a drama concerning the fight between Trotsky and Stalin (New York, 1932); Erev sof (Eve of the end), a dramatic chronicle in four scenes, a messianic vision, published in In zikh (1934-1939); Tsu dir—tsu mir (To you, to me), a poem (New York, 1932), 62 pp.; Fabyus lind (Fabius Lind), poetry (New York, 1937), 250 pp. and 20 pp., with a foreword by Leyeles on his poetic credo; Tsu dir, amerike (To thee, America), text to a cantata (music by Lazar Vayner), in Yiddish and English (New York: Cosmopolitan, 1944); A yid afn yam (A Jew on the sea), poetry (New York: Tsiko, 1947), 315 pp.—“The most tragic and fullest poems in the book are the longer ones,” wrote Yankev Glatshteyn.  “…They are loaded with the content of profound Jewish idealism”; Fanye (Fanye), poems and essays, with contributions by Yoysef Opatoshu and H. Leivick (New York, 1954), 67 pp.; Velt un vort, literarishe un andere eseyen (World and word, literary and other essays), with an introduction by the author, parts published earlier in Tog, Tsukunft, Idisher kemfer, Di goldene keyt, and elsewhere (New York, 1958), 318 pp.—including, pp. 9-35, an interview with A. Tabatshnik from a recorded anthology (in the conversation, Leyeles again expresses his poetic credo: “The tune—the music that is the very element of my creative work.”).  Amerike un ikh (America and me) (New York: Kval, 1963), 127 pp.; Opklayb, lider, poemes, drames (Selection of poetry and dramas) (New York: Jewish Culture Congress, 1968), 588 pp.  He received the Louis Lamed Prize in 1948 for his book A yid afn yam and in 1958 for his book Baym fus fun barg, lider un poemes (At the foot of the mountain, poetry) (New York: Tsiko, 1957), 287 pp.  The publisher Mosad Bialik in Jerusalem brought out in 1960 a selection of his poetry and his two Messiah plays in Hebrew translation: Shirim veḥezyonot (Poems and visions), Shelomo molkho, and Osher lemlen, with a long introduction (pp. 7-37) and a literary cross-section of his writings, by Dov Sadan, professor of Yiddish at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem: “The mature poet who continues to experiment but who knows at first all possibilities of the Yiddish word…”  Benjamin Harshav translated his poetry, and Shimshon Meltzer the dramas.  Leyeles’s poetry was represented in anthologies: Morris Basin, Finf hundert yor yidishe poezye (500 years of Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1917); B. Vladek, Fun der tifenish fun harts (From the depths of the heart), an anthology of revolutionary literature (New York, 1917); Mani Leyb, Nyu-york in ferzn (New York in verse) (New York, 1918); Zishe Landau, Di yidish dikhtung in amerike (Yiddish poetry in America) (New York, 1919); Lodzher almanakh (Lodz almanac) (New York, 1934); Antologye fun landsmanshaft-poezye in der amerikaner yidisher dikhtung (Anthology of compatriot poetry in American Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1938); Antologye fun der nayer yidisher dikhtung (Anthology of modern Yiddish poetry) (Bucharest, 1945), edited by Eliezer Frenkel and Yitskhok Panner, in Romanized spelling; M. Yofe, ed., Erets-yisroel in der yidisher literatur (The land of Israel in Yiddish literature) (Tel Aviv, 1961); K. Molodovski, ed., Lider un khurbn (Poetry and destruction) (Tel Aviv, 1962).  In Hebrew: in the anthology Aḥisefer (New York, 1943), a portion of his Shelomo molkho, translated by Arn Tsaytlin, and poems translated by A. Grinshpan; in Al naharot (To the rivers) (Tel Aviv, 1957), translated by Sh. Meltzer.  In English: Shmuel Yankev Imber, ed. and trans., Modern Yiddish Poetry: An Anthology (New York: East and West Publishing Co., 1927); Joseph Leftwich, ed. and trans., The Golden Peacock (London, 1939, 1961).  In Polish: Y. Apenshlak, trans., in Nasz Kurier (Our courier) (Warsaw, 1922); M. Shimel and Sh. Vagman, trans., in Almanach Literacki (Literary almanac) (Warsaw, 1931).  In French: Joseph Milbauer, ed. and trans., Poètes yiddish d’aujourd’hui (Contemporary Yiddish poets) (Brussels-Paris, 1936).  In Russian: L. Faynberg, Evreiskaia poeziya (Yiddish poetry) (New York, 1947).  He edited the following: Di folksshtime (The voice of the people), a weekly newspaper (New York, 1912); Der nayer dor (Chicago, 1913); Frayland (Freeland), an anthology (New York, 1913), with Yankev Levin and Y. M. Budish; In zikh anthology (New York, 1920), with Yankev Glatshteyn and N. B. Minkov; In zikh, monthly journal (New York, 1922, 1923, 1934); Fun tsayt tsu tsayt (From time to time), a collection (New York, 1925), with Yoysef Opatoshu and H. Leivick.  He was co-editor (from issue no. 18 in 1932) of the weekly Idish (Yiddish) in New York.  He also edited (with Riva Ludvig) Ruvn Ludvig’s Gezamlte lider (Collected poems) (New York, 1927); and Bernard Louis’s Flamtalin (New York, 1937).  His poetic accomplishments are cited in: the Soviet Literaturnaia entsiklopediya (Literary encyclopedia), vol. 6 (Moscow, 1932), p. 152; Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. 25 (New York, 1952), p. 892; Cassel’s Encyclopaedia of World Literature (London, 1973).  For his fiftieth birthday, a special issue of In zikh (New York, 1939, 168 pp.) was published, edited by Y. A. Vaysman, with articles and essays by Dovid Pinski, Y. Opatoshu, Dr. Sh. Margoshes, Dr. Shloyme Bikl, N. B. Minkov, A. Oyerbakh, Arn Tsaytlin, Moyshe Shtarkman, Meylekh Ravitsh, Leybush Lehrer, B. Y. Byalostotski, Y. A. Vaysman, H. Novak, Mates Daytsh, Elye Shulman, and poems by H. Leivick, Avrom Reyzen, A. Sutskever, and Tuvye Blum, among others.  On his seventieth birthday, a portion of Di goldene keyt (issue no. 34) with articles by B. Alkvit-Blum, A. Oyerbakh, and A. Sutskever was dedicated to him.  Also created was a $5000 fund—the “Leyeles-Vishnetski Fund for Yiddish Poetry”—was established with the objective of publishing each year a selection of the best that Yiddish poetry created over the course of the last century, with corresponding explanations and evaluations.  He died in New York.
            “Arn Leyeles,” wrote Shmuel Niger, “took part in the modernization and urbanization of the Yiddish poetic language, and he had an impact with his dramatic poems and the richness of his poetic forms.”  “He had to engage in a long, obstinate struggle,” wrote Leo Finkelshteyn, “with literary prejudice….  His poetry expressed the most authentic internal vision….  All his life he has been a passionate fighter,…on the whole a humanist progressive, ethnic secularist, mainly Yiddishist, and overall—a socialist.”  “He is familiar in the most diverse poetic forms, many of which,” noted A. Oyerbakh, “were alien to the Yiddish language.”  “A poet with firm idealistic terrain beneath his feet,” wrote Y. Pat, “with a colossal world view, with distinct, clear opinions about Yiddish culture, Yiddish literature, and the Yiddish language.”  In the words of Shloyme Bikl, “An organic basic motif of Leyeles’s work is the uncompromising quality of an idea….  He knows the deep, creative secret of being knight, servant, and lord of the language all at the same time.  He helped our word to be restrained and to expand at the same time.”



Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 2 (New York, 1934); A. Nisenzon, in Der onheyb (New York) (March 1918); Nisenzon, in Fray arbeter-shtime (New York) (September 5, 1947); H. Rogof, in Tsukunft (New York) (January 1919); Shmuel Niger, in Tsukunft (March 1927; October 1928); Niger, in Der tog (New York) (January 15, 1933; January 13, 1935); Niger, in Algemeyne entsiklopedye (General encyclopedia), “Yidn 3” (New York, 1942), pp. 168-69; M. Olgin, in Der hamer (New York) (July 1924), pp. 44-51; Yisroel Shtern, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (April 1927); Shtern, Lider un eseyen (Poems and essays) (New York, 1956), pp. 193-99; L. Faynberg, in Unzer bukh (New York) 2 (1927); Dr. Y. Shatski, in Unzer bukh 3 (1927); Shatski, D”r yankev shatski biblyografye (Dr. Yankev Shatski bibliography) (New York, 1939); E. Almi, Humoristishe shriftn (Humorous writings) (Warsaw, 1928), pp. 151-52; Almi, Kritik un polemik (Criticism and polemic) (Warsaw, 1939), pp. 249-55; B. Tutshinski, Der meshikhizm in der moderner idisher literatur (Messianism in modern Jewish literature) (Kishinev, 1930); Y. Rapoport, in Fraye shriftn (Warsaw) 10 (1930), pp. 140-51; Rapoport, Zoymen in vint (Seeds in the wind) (Melbourne, 1959); A. Oyerbakh, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (February 20, 1931); Oyerbakh, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (New York) (July 13, 1959; October 11, 1959; September 18, 1960); Oyerbakh, in Di goldene keyt (Tel Aviv) 34 (1959); B. Y. Byalostotski, Lider un eseyen (Poems and essays) (New York, 1932), pp. 77-130; Byalostotski, Kholem un vor, eseyen (Dream and reality, essays) (New York, 1956), pp. 144ff; Z. Vaynper, in Yidish shriftshteler (New York) 1 (1933), pp. 51-61; Y. Botoshanski, Portretn fun yidishe shrayber (Portraits of Yiddish writers) (Warsaw, 1933), pp. 242-49; Moyshe Kats, in Morgn-frayhayt (New York) (June 23, 1934); N. Veynik, in Literarishe bleter (July 12, 1935); Dr. A. Mukdoni, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (July 17, 1935); B. Grobard, A fertlyorhundert, esey vegn der yidisher literatur in amerike (A quarter century, essay on Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1935), see index; Al. Pomerants, in Proletpen (Kiev, 1935), pp. 105-52; Y. Glants, in Der veg (Mexico City) (June 26, 1937; April 6, 1957; March 21, 1959); N. Gross, Sefer hashana leyehude amerika (Annual of Jews in America) (New York, 1938), pp. 381-87; Dr. Shloyme Bikl, in In zikh (New York) 53 (1939); Bikl, Detaln un sakhaklen, kritishe un polemishe bamerkungen (Details and sum totals, critical and polemical observations) (New York, 1943), pp. 107-52; Bikl, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (April 14, 1957); Bikl, Shrayber fun mayn dor (Writers of my generation) (New York, 1958), pp. 84-98; N. B. Minkov, in In zikh (New York) 53 (1939); Minkov, in Literarishe vegn (Mexico City) (1955), pp. 219-49; Minkov, in Tsukunft (September 1957); Meylekh Ravitsh, in In zikh (New York) 53 (1939); Ravitsh, in Tsukunft (May-June 1959); Ravitsh, in Yidish bukh-almanakh (Yiddish book almanac) (New York, 1961/1962), pp. 107-17; Moyshe Shtarkman, in In zikh (New York) 53 (1939); Shtarkman, in Algemeyne entsiklopedye, “Yidn 5” (New York, 1957); Y. Gotlib, in Zamlbikher (New York) 4 (1939); Gotlib, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (April 13, 1959); Yankev Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (In essence), vol. 1 (New York, 1947), pp. 97-105, 295-302, vol. 2 (New York, 1956), pp. 291-96; Glatshetyn, in Idisher kemfer (New York) (November 15, 1957); Glatshteyn, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (March 6, 1959); Mortkhe Yofe, in Hadoar (New York) (May 23, 1947); Yofe, in Di goldene keyt 29 (1957); Yofe, in Tsukunft (September 1959); Y. Y. Sigal, in Keneder odler (July 28, 1947); B. Rivkin, Grunt-tendentsn fun der yidisher literatur in amerike (Basic tendencies in Yiddish literature in America) (New York, 1948), p. 313; Gershon Pomerants, in Keneder odler (November 11, 1949); G. Pomerants, in Der idisher zhurnal (Toronto) (June 26, 1960); Y. Yonasovitsh, in Di goldene keyt 4 (1949), pp. 123-30; Rokhl H. Korn, in Tsukunft (May-June 1`950); Elye Shulman, in Afn shvel (New York) (July-August 1953); L. Finkelshteyn, Yidish loshn un yidisher kiem (The Yiddish language and Jewish existence) (Mexico City, 1954), pp. 318-27; Yankev Pat, Shmuesn mit yidishe shrayber (Conversations with Yiddish writers) (New York, 1954), pp. 97-112; Pat, Siḥot im sofrim yehudiyim (Chats with Jewish writers) (Tel Aviv, 1959), pp. 85-102; N. Mayzil, in Yidishe kultur (New York) (August-September 1954); Mayzil, Tsurikblikn un perspektivn (Retrospectives and perspectives) (Tel Aviv, 1962), see index; Sh. Leshtshinski, in Metsuda (London) (1954), pp. 546-48; Leshtshinski, Literarishe eseyen (Literary essays) (New York, 1955), pp. 116-26; Y. Rodak, Kunst un kinstler (Art and artist) (New York, 1955), p. 85; L. Shpizman, in Geshikhte fun der tsienistisher arbeter-bavegung fun tsofn-amerike (History of the Zionist labor movement in North America), vols. 1 and 2 (New York, 1955), see index; H. Royzenblat, in Idisher kemfer (Rosh Hashana issue, 1957); Dr. A. A. Robak, Di imperye yidish (The imperium of Yiddish) (Mexico City, 1958), see index; Mates Daytsh, in Vayter (New York) (January-February 1958); Daytsh, in Fraye arbeter-shtime (January 1, 1959); Daytsh, in Kheshbn (Los Angeles) (October 1962); Kh. Bez, in Dertsiungs-entsiklopedye (Encyclopedia of education), vol. gimel-dalet (New York, 1959); Dov Sadan, introduction to Shirim veḥezyonot (Poems and visions) (Jerusalem, 1960), pp. 9-35; Sadan, Avne zikaron (Milestones) (Tel Aviv, 1953/1954), see index; Ts. L. Tirush, in Haboker (Tel Aviv) (Adar 12 [= February 11], 1960); M. Shanir, in Hapoel hatsayir (Tel Aviv) (Nisan 5 [= April 2], 1960); Y. H. Biletski, in Gazit (Tel Aviv) (Nisan-Iyar [= March-May] 1960), pp. 49-50; K. A. Bartini, in Moznaim (Tel Aviv) (Elul [= August-September] 1960); Bartini, in Di goldene keyt 45 (1962); Y. Kohn, Baym rand fun onheyb (At the edge of the beginning) (New York, 1960), pp. 105-12; Sh. Izban, in Tog-morgn-zhurnal (February 24, 1960); Izban, in Tsukunft (March 1962), pp. 137-39; Yefim yeshurin yoyvl-bukh (Yefim Yeshurin jubilee volume) (New York, 1960); Y. Emyot, in Der idisher zhurnal (February 19, 1961); Emyot, in Keneder odler (December 7, 1962); A. Ezra, in Di goldene keyt 40 (1961), pp. 193-99; Yoysef Gar and Philip Fridman, Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York: YIVO and Yad Vashem, 1962), see index; B. Sumer, Af zaytike vegn (Along side ways) (New York, 1963), pp. 44-49; I Goldberg, in The Stratford Journal (Boston) (January-March 1920); Dr. A. Koralnik, in New Palestine (New York) (1927); Literaturnaia Entsiklopediya (Literary encyclopedia), vol. 6 (Moscow, 1932); Salomón Resnick, Esquema de la Literatura Judía (Scheme of Jewish literature) (Buenos Aires, 1933); Who’s Who in American Jewry (New York, 1938-1939, 1950); A. A. Roback, The Story of Yiddish Literature (New York, 1940), pp. 291-92; Uriel Weinreich, Dictionary of Poetry (New York, 1957); Benjamin Hrushovski, in The Field of Yiddish (New York, 1959); Dr. S. Margoshes, “News and Views,” The Day-Jewish Journal (New York) (September 18, 1960).
Khayim Leyb Fuks and Mortkhe Yofe

[Additional information from: Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 350.]


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