ZUSMAN SEGALOVITSH (February 26, 1884-February 19, 1949)
He was born in Bialystok, Russian Poland, into a family that had produced numerous rabbis. He studied in private schools and at home. He worked at a number of positions, was a salesman in an iron business, and a laborer in a tile factory. He joined the Bund (1904-1905), was active in leading labor strikes in Bialystok, and was on many occasions arrested and spent many months in various prisons. In those years he began his literary activities. His first poem, “Tishe, tishe, serdtse” (Quiet, quiet, heart), was published in the Bialystok Russian newspaper Zapadnaia okraina (Western outskirts) on March 3, 1903. In Yiddish he debuted in print with a poem in Fraynd (Friend) in St. Petersburg (July 1904). After the Bialystok pogrom, he moved with his parents to Lodz. There he published poetry in a variety of newspapers and anthologies, such as: the Vilna Bundist Folks-tsaytung (People’s newspaper); the periodical collection Blumen un funken, lider (Flowers and sparks, poetry); Di velt (The world); Friling (Spring); Der friling (The spring), brought out by the Bundist published “Di velt” in Vilna; as well as the Yiddish press in Lodz and elsewhere. His first poetry collection, Shtile troymen (Quiet dreams), was favorably reviewed by the critics. He also composed poems in prose, miniatures, and sketches. His poem In kazmerzh (In Kazimierz), made a big splash—it appeared in many editions, one of his most beautiful and mature works. “From his first period,” wrote Leo Finkelshteyn, “In kazmerzh is his best poem and with it he gained entrée [lit., purchased citizenship] into Yiddish literature. This is a poem that drew attention because of its newness at the time. A mixture of nature descriptions with subjective-lyrical courage.” Also belonging to that first period of his writings, when he was mainly concerned with lyrical poetry, are the poems that are included in his collection: Ven di zun fergeht (When the sun sets); the ballad Dem shoykhets tokhter (The ritual slaughterer’s daughter), which later became the popular folk ballad Reyzele dem shoykhets (Reyzele, the ritual slaughterer’s [daughter]); and the dramatic poem Di vant (The wall), initially published as a fragment (via the military censor’s cutting) in Di yudishe velt (The Jewish world) in Warsaw 3 (1915), and in book form in 1918. With the outbreak of WWI, Segalovitsh found himself—with Daniel Tsharni (Charney) and Shmuel Niger—in the Jewish colony of Dominove (Domanovo), near Bobruisk. He spent 1914-1915 in Odessa, in the Crimean, in the Caucasus. He was drafted in 1916 into the Russian army. After the March revolution (1917), he was mustered out of the military, lived in Kiev and then in Moscow, where he worked for a time with Moyshe Broderzon and Daniel Charney. At that time he contributed to the Odessa literary anthology Untervegns (Pathways), Khakov’s Kunst-ringen (Art links), Moscow’s poetry collection Mut (Courage), and Vilna’s Unzer frayhayt (Our freedom). He also published several new collections of his own works, such as: Goldene paves (Golden peacocks); A legende vebt zikh, noveln (A legend takes shape, stories); Minyaturn (Miniatures); Lirishe lider (Lyrical poems); and Bloykeyt (Blueness); among others. In early 1919 he returned to Poland, via Vilna, settled in Warsaw, and became a contributor to: Warsaw’s Haynt (Today) and Lodzer tageblat (Lodz daily newspaper); Tsayt (Times) in London; Tog (Day) in New York; and Literarishe bleter (Literary leaves) in Warsaw; among other serials. He published several new poetry collections, such as: Regine (Regina), Tsaytike troybn (Mature grapes), Strunes (Strings), and Kaprizn (Whims). He also published stories, travel impressions, and articles, but he gained his greatest popularity among the broadest Jewish reading masses for his novel Di vilde tsilke, roman (The wild, playful girl, a novel), as well as for his autobiographical trilogy: Romantishe yorn (Romantic years), memoirs and experiences over five years; Dos anarkhistishe meydl (The anarchistic gal); and Eybik eynzam (Eternally lonely)—beloved and the most read work by laboring youth in the cities and towns throughout Poland. He served as vice-chairman and later on several occasions chairman of the “Association of Jewish writers and journalists” at 13 Tłomackie St., which was following his arrival from Russia a second home. He also visited the cities and towns of Poland to give lectures and speeches. On two occasions he visited Paris, and he was also in Riga and Kovno. Around 1930 he joined the editorial board of Warsaw’s Haynt (Today), in which, aside from fiction, he published every week (also using the pen names Aleksander Yavets and Svengali) feature pieces and reflections mostly about daily Jewish life in Warsaw. On his thirty years of literary activity, there was published in 1933: Vegn z. segalovitsh, tsu zayn 30 yorikn shrayber-yoyvl, 1903-1933 (On Z. Segalovitsh, on his thirty-year career as a writer, 1903-1933), published by the Jewish writers’ and journalists’ association in Warsaw. The honorary chairman of the celebratory committee was Sholem Asch. Contributing to this collection were the following: Moyshe Broderzon, Y. Gotlib, Sh. Harantshik, A. Zak, Sh. Zaromb, V. Latski-Bertoldi, Itsik Manger, Y. Mastboym, Sh. Y. Stupnitski, Y. Perle, Rokhl H. Korn, and Meylekh Ravitsh. “In a number of his poems in Regine,” wrote Manger, “one gets a lyrical-storytelling greeting. The good spirits of his better lyrical poems strain the muscles and reach the maximum.” “Segalovitsh assumes a position,” noted Zalmen Reyzen, “in Yiddish literature mainly as a lyrical poet. His love of nature, the light, quiet sadness, and the melodiousness of his often classical verse are the principal merits of his better poetry…. Segalovitsh is weaker in his prose writing, although his novels are among the most read works in modern Yiddish fiction…. His work is not too deep, though often too sentimental, too little original in its depictions and characterizations of his figures. His language is simple and fluent, making him accessible and intelligible for the wide reading public, on whom he prevailed with his naturalness, lack of pretention, and sincerity.” As Meylekh Ravitsh pointed out: “He is the dew on the trees, the white cobweb, a dancing spot of late afternoon sun in a village home, when the youngsters are off in the woods. A quivering moonlit flame in the home of a sleepless person. The quiet tear in a person’s eye…sentiment is the dominant mood of all people. To my way of thinking, Segalovitsh is first and foremost a poet. This has remained until the present day his strongest aspect. His poetry cycles In kazmerzh and Regine are pearls of Yiddish lyricism. He has, however, attained his truly massive popularity as a novelist, although his novels do not occupy such a place in the literature of the Yiddish novel, as does his poetry in the Yiddish lyric.”
This was all until 1939. When the bloody Nazi wave flowed through Eastern Europe and murdered the Jewish people there, this poet of the people became someone else. The carefree singer of Regine was transformed into a great elegiac poet for the Jewish people, the heartbreaking chill of Dortn (There), Nishto (None), and Gebrente trit, ayndrukn un iberlebungen fun pleytim-vanderung (Terrible step, impression and experiences of refugees’ wandering). When the Germans (in 1939) invaded Poland, Segalovitsh was among a group of Jewish writers who left Warsaw in a single railway car. He stayed for a time in Vilna, and later Kovno, from whence through Bulgaria, Turkey, and Syria, he arrived in 1941 in the land of Israel; there he settled in Tel Aviv, contributed for two years to Haboker (This morning), later to Hazman (The times), in which he also published in Hebrew one of his monumental Holocaust poems, Dortn, which he had earlier published in New York’s Di tsukunft (The future). “Though seven years in which he has lived in Israel,” noted Y. Perlman, “Segalovitsh walked around like a mourner, not going to the movies or the theater, and avoiding cafes with music. His new work, not as yet published anywhere, he has read in public from manuscripts. His listeners were: professors from the Hebrew University, judges, lawyers, students and ordinary folks, longtime citizens of the land of Israel. By reciting his poems, he conveyed to his listeners his pain and sorrow, his bereavement over the suffering Jews of Poland.” In late 1947 he visited Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam—en route to the United States. In 1948 he arrived in New York, receptions for him were held by fellow Bialystok natives, by the newly founded Tłomackie 13, and by other organizations. He published in Forverts (Forward) “Mayne zibn yor in tel-aviv” (My seven years in Tel Aviv), and he contributed to the first collection put out by the World Jewish Culture Congress. He felt lonely, deserted, and bewildered in New York. “I have many friends here,” he wrote in a letter (dated September 9, 1948) to Yosef Perlman in Tel Aviv, “that is, I have their telephone numbers and they have mine. But no one calls or appears. I am appreciated here a great deal, but one can sit an entire week alone in one’s room, and for the time being I have time to think about things, such as how ‘appreciated’ I am.” He always thought and planned to return to Tel Aviv, but he died suddenly in his New York hotel room. His death deeply shocked Yiddish writers, his close friends, and many of his lifelong readers formerly from Poland. From the obituary notices and articles about the deceased in the newspapers and magazines, the Jewish world learned that a great poet had passed away, a poet for whom the extermination of Polish Jewry was a perpetual nightmare.
His published books include: Shtile troymen (Warsaw: Hashakhar, 1909), 48 pp.; In kazmerzh (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1912), 48 pp., through many editions; Ven di zun fergeht (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1914), 48 pp.; Goldene paves (Moscow: Khaver, 1917), 32 pp.; A legende vebt zikh, noveln (Moscow: Leben, 1918), 46 pp., second edition (Warsaw, 1923), 234 pp., third edition (Warsaw: Bzhoza, 1928), 233 pp.; Minyaturn (Kharkov: Idish, 1918), 64 pp.; Di vant, a dramatic study (Moscow, 1918; Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1920), 32 pp., second edition (Vilna: Naye yidishe folks-shul, 1929), 16 pp.; Lirishe lider (Kiev: Meyer Goldfayn, 1919), 64 pp.; Bloykeyt (Kiev: Idishe folks farlag, 1919), 160 pp.; Strunes (Kharkov: Idish, 1919; Warsaw, 1921), 234 or 238 pp.; Fun rusland fun der revolutsye (From Russia of the revolution) (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1920), 169 pp.; Goldene paves (Vilna: Sh. Shreberk, 1920), 237 pp.; Regine (Warsaw, 1920), 64 pp., first published in Vayter-bukh (Volume for [A.] Vayter) (Vilna, 1920); Reyzele dem shoykhets (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1921), 16 pp.; Kaprizn (Warsaw: Association of Jewish Writers and journalists in Warsaw, 1921), 235 pp., second edition (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1928); Shtegn-vegn, naye noveln (Trails, new stories) (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1921), 231 pp.; translation from Russian of N. Gogol’s Der revizor, komedye in finf aktn (The inspector general, a comedy in five acts [original: Revizor]) (Warsaw: Di tsayt, 1922), 112 pp.; Osnes, ertseylung (Osnat, a story) (Kovno-Berlin, 1921), 56 pp.; Di vilde tsilke, roman (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1922), 235 pp.; Krimer nekht (Crimean nights) (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1922), 311 pp.;, second edition (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1928); Mon (Poppy seed) (Warsaw: A. Gitlin, 1922), 154 pp.; A froy in kazarme un ivan gumnov (A woman in the barracks, and Ivan Gumnov) (Warsaw: Yatshkovski, 1923), 81 pp.; Romantishe yorn (Warsaw: Vanderer, 1923), 214 pp., second edition (Warsaw: Yatshkovski, 1924), 213 pp., third edition (Warsaw: Yatshkovski, 1928), 213 pp.; Eybik eynzam—from the trilogy Zeliks yorn (Zelik’s years)—(Warsaw: Yatshkovski, 1924), 320 pp., second edition (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1926), third edition (Warsaw, 1929); Dos anarkhistishe meydl—also from the trilogy Zeliks yorn—(Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1925), 348 pp.; Poemen (Poems) (Warsaw, 1926), 219 pp.; Mayses fun der rusisher kazarme (Stories from the Russian barracks) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1926), 169 pp.; Ikh, zi un er, noveln (I, she, and he, stories) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1926), 254 pp.; Unzer froy (Our wife)—third part of the Zeliks yorn trilogy (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1926), 390 pp., second printing (Warsaw, 1928), third printing (Warsaw, 1930); Momentn fun der rusisher revolutsye (Moments from the Russian Revolution) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1926), 156 pp.; Roykh far a lyulke, noveln (Smoke for a pipe, stories) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1928), 263 pp.; Sentimentn (Sentiments) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1929), 236 pp.; Di brider nemzar, roman (The brothers Nemzar, a novel) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1929), 306 pp.; A mentsh mit a gitare, noveln (A man with a guitar, stories) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1930), 294 pp.; Fride iz nisht mayne, mayn fraynds dertseylung (Frida is not mine, my friend’s story) (Warsaw, 1934), 158 pp.; Dem vebers tokhter (The weaver’s daughter) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1936), 219 pp.; Antosha un andere (Antosha and others) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1937), 269 pp.; Fragmentn (Fragments) (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1939), 223 pp.; Shures akht (Rows eight), poems and notes of Mendl Rayf (Warsaw: Kh. Bzhoza, 1939), 60 pp., second printing (Paris: A. B. Tserata, 1945), 62 pp.; A boym fun poyln (A tree from Poland) (Buenos Aires, 1945), 181 pp.; Tlomatske 13, fun farbrente nekhtn (13 Tłomackie St., of zealous nights) (Buenos Aires: Central Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1946), 255 pp.; Dortn, which includes the poems “A boym fun poyln,” “Nishto,” “Treblinke” (Treblinka), “Pleytim-lider” (Refugees’ songs), “Klaren mayn yizker” (Klaren, my remembrance) (New York: Tsukunft un Tsiko, 1946), 155 pp.; Gebrente trit, ayndrukn un iberlebungen fun pleytim-vanderung (Buenos Aires, 1947), 255 pp.; Itster, poemen (Present, poems), preface by Yankev Glatshteyn (New York: Tsiko, 1948), 230 pp.; Geklibene lider (Selected poems) (New York: IKUF, 1948), 260 pp.; Benetiv halehavot (In the bath of flames) (Jerusalem: Or laam, 1945), 255 pp.; Mayne zibn yor in tel-aviv, with a preface by B. Shefner (Buenos Aires: Central Association of Polish Jews in Argentina, 1949), 237 pp.; Der letster lodzher roman (The last novel from Lodz) (Buenos Aires, 1951), 398 pp. On several occasions his books were also republished under the title Ale verk (Collected works), which included the editions published by Kh Bzhoza in Warsaw (1925-1926), in fourteen volumes. In addition to his regular contributing to Warsaw Yiddish-language newspapers Haynt and Moment (Moment), he also published articles, poetry, and prose in: Yudishe velt (Jewish world) in Vilna; Literarishe bleter and Nasz Przegląd (Our overview), among others, in Warsaw; Tsayt (Times) in London; Di tsukunft, Der amerikaner (The American), Morgn-zhurnal (Morning journal), Tog, and Forverts in New York; the anthology Ringen (Links) (Kovno, 1940), in which he also placed his “Bay vos haltn mir haynt?” (Where do we now stand?). His work also appeared in the anthology Di yidishe proze in poyln tsvishn beyde velt-milkhomes (Yiddish prose in Poland between the two world wars), and also in the Warsaw publications Haynt yoyvl-bukh (Jubilee volume for Haynt) (1928 and 1938). His dramatic poem Di vant was staged by various amateur theatrical troupes. In 1923 it was produced by the Yiddish art society of Vilna. Yankev Vaksman also dramatized his one of the poet’s novels, Unzer froy. His poetry has been translated into Polish, Russian, Romanian, French, English, and German. His volume Gebrente trit also appeared in Hebrew translation, as did his poem Dortn, among others. His work also appeared in Sh. Meltser’s anthology Al naharot (By the rivers) (Jerusalem, 1955/1956). In speech and print, he was always sharply opposed to assimilation and all manner of enemies of the Yiddish language.
“In his Holocaust poems,” noted Y. Rapaport, “there is the authentic tone of great national ‘lamentations,’ and there is something both simple and shocking in them that reminds us of pious, modest, women’s prayers which our mothers used to recite, expressing in their words and in their melody the profound human-Jewish world sorrow…. He leads us, Segalovitsh, through the great ‘absence’ in our lives, and he shows us what we have lost, and he accomplishes so much with his thin features! In several lines he unearths his most valuable of them.” As Yankev Glatshteyn wrote: “In the final five poems of Nishto, Segalovitsh intones the poet of In kazmerzh. The verses to Poland remind one of the poet’s blessed beginning, although they are full of the tragedy of the devastated ending….—when everything was destroyed, then Segalovitsh fled from there a dying man. He was not a rescued refugee in the usual sense. He remained literally at the threshold of death. The Polish Jewish artist clad himself with a strength so that he could live and lament. This is a phenomenon that no literature has as yet witnessed. He has not lived for life, but for a funeral oration and prayer for the deceased…. Language has served him wonderfully, when he intones the kaddish prayer for the Nalewki St. Jews as for all of Poland. In a magnificent manner he maintained the warmth of all soulful parts that have given our language and our people the stamina to bear up under exile. Segalovitsh’s poems of lamentation gave to Yiddish a great addition and inscribed a Yiddish Lamentations in the ancient text of ours.” In the words of Shmuel Niger: “Segalovitsh’s ‘I’-creations were a portion of the entire ravaging placed before individualism. Before everything else, though, this was an expression of his personal self-consciousness, of his almost inborn inclination to feel solitary, to be alone ‘eternally lonely.’… Thus was it so before the Holocaust—and after as well: Segalovitsh did not, essentially, finish with this, but the motif and basic air of his work were transformed. The air was shaken up as from an earthquake, and the leitmotif of his poetry and his prose became more profound, broader, more elevated than before. The physical destruction of his home, of his 13 Tłomackie St., of his reading world and the entire world’s moral chaos, the lament and the scream of generations became his. The poet was wrenched from his own life-soil, waves of chaos snatched him up—and he gained wind of it within himself—and we all did as well—of his new, his powerful, but still not silent, and thus his authentic voice at the base of his anguish.”
Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 2, with a bibliography; Zalmen Zilbertsvayg, Leksikon fun yidishn teater (Handbook of the Yiddish theater), vol. 2 (New York, 1934); M. Olgin, in Di tsukunft (New York) (May 1914); Shmuel Niger, in Di tsukunft (June 1921); Niger, in Der tog (New York) (March 20, 1949); M. Vaykhert, Teater un drame (Theater and drama), vol. 2 (Vilna, 1926); Vaykhert, Varshe (Warsaw) (Tel Aviv, 1961), see index; N. Veynik, Shveln (Thresholds) Lodz, 1924); Perets Markish, “Di yidishe literatur in poyln” (Yiddish literature in Poland), Shtern (Minsk) (March 1927); Y. Y. Zinger, in Literarishe bleter (Warsaw) (February 1927); L. Finkelshteyn, in Bikher-velt (Warsaw) (June-July 1928); Finkelshteyn, in Unzer shtime (Paris) 648 (1949); Finkelshteyn, in Der veker (New York) (March 15, 1949); Finkelshteyn, Loshn yidish un yidisher kiem (The Yiddish language and Jewish survival) (Mexico, 1954), pp. 255-66; A. Mark, in Literarishe bleter (June 15, 1928); Y. Pat, in Vokhnshrift far literatur (Warsaw) (October 23, 1931; October 30, 1931; November 6, 1931); Rokhl H. Korn, in Literarishe bleter (March 3, 1933); Korn, in Segalovitsh-bukh (Volume for Segalovitsh) (Warsaw, 1933); N. Mayzil, in Literarishe bleter (March 10, 1933); Mayzil, in Di tsukunft (September 1934); Mayzil, Tsvishn khurbn un oyfboy, bagegenishn, ayndrukn un batrakhtungen, fun a rayze iber eyrope un erets-yisroel (Between destruction and reconstruction, encounters, impressions, and considerations from a trip through Europe and the land of Israel) (New York, 1947), p. 215; Mayzil, in Yidishe kultur (New York) (April 1949); Mayzil, Noente un eygene, fun yankev dinezon biz hirsh glik (Near and one’s own, from Yankev Dinezon to Hirsch Glick) (New York, 1957); Mayzil, Tsurikblikn un perspektivn (Retrospectives and perspectives) (Tel Aviv: Perets Publ., 1962), see index; E. Almi, Mentshn un ideyen (Men and ideas) (Warsaw, 1933); Almi, in Fraye arbeter-shtime (New York) (February 27, 1948); M. Goldman, in Gut-morgn (Bialystok) (October 27, 1933); Y. Botoshanski, Portretn fun yidishe shrayber (Portraits of Yiddish writers) (Warsaw, 1933); D. Tsharni (Daniel Charney), in Di tsukunft (October 1935; June 1939; January 1943); Charney, A yortsendlik aza, 1914-1924, memuarn (Such a decade, 1914-1924, memoirs) (New York: CYCO, 1943); Charney, in Byalistoker shtime (New York) (January-February 1949); Charney, A litvak in poyln (A Lithuanian Jew in Poland) (New York, 1955); Y. Levenshteyn, in Literarishe bleter (March 10, 1936); Sh. Lubetkin, Publitsistn (Journalists) (Warsaw, 1937); Elkhonen Tsaytlin, In a literarisher shtub (In a literary home) (Warsaw, 1937); M. Kitay, in Yidishe bilder (Riga) 9 (41) (March 4, 1938); M. Broderzon, in Nayer floksblat (Lodz), 35th annual jubilee (March 11, 1938); Y. Horn, in Der shpigl (Buenos Aires) (March 31, 1938); Horn, Ineynem, zamlbukh (Altogether, anthology) (Buenos Aires, 1949), pp. 248-50; Y. Bashevis, in Di tsukunft (July 1940); Meylekh Ravitsh, in Der veg (Mexico City) (July 25, 1942; July 19, 1947); Ravitsh, in Keneder odler (Montreal) (May 8, 1944; June 30, 1947); Ravitsh, Mayn leksikon (My lexicon) (Montreal, 1945), pp. 150-52; Ravitsh, in Di tsukunft (July 1946); Ravitsh, in Yorbukh (New York) (1950); D. Sahan, in Byalistoker shtime (April 1943); Sahan, in Nyu yorker vokhnblat (New York) 1 (1943); P. Shvarts, Azoy iz geven der onheyb (That was how it began) (New York, 1943); Shvarts, in Unzer shtime (June 27, 1959); Shvarts, in Foroys (Mexico City) (July 1959); B. Grosbard, in Literarishe zamlungen (Literary anthologies) (Chicago, 1944); Kh. Sh. Kazdan, in Der veker (New York) (March 15, 1944); Kazdan, in Di tsukunft (July-August 1949); Kazdan, in Foroys (January 1, 1951); Y. Glants, in Der veg (July 21, 1945); B. Frenkel, in Unzer shtime 81 (1945); Y. L. Gruzman, in Der shpigl (March 1946); A. Lis, in Yidishe kultur (February 1947); Lis, Heym un doyer, vegn shrayber un verk (Home and duration, on writers and work) (Tel Aviv: Y. L. Perets Library, 1960), pp. 221-26; Sh. Izraeli, in Forverts (New York) (May 18, 1947); Yankev Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (In essence) (New York, 1947), pp. 9-17; Glatshteyn, In tokh genumen (New York, 1956), pp. 128-35; Sh. D. Zinger, in Fraye arbeter-shtime (February 6, 1948); D. Naymark, in Der veker (May 1, 1948); Y. Freylikh, in Unzer veg (New York) (July 1948; March 15, 1949); Y. Tsineman, in Tsienistishe shtime (Paris) (July 1, 1948); Tsineman, In gerangl (In conflict) (Paris, 1952), pp. 162-64; Sh. Tenenboym, in Nyu yorker vokhnblat 329 (1948); Tenenboym, Shnit fun mayn feld, eseyen, dertseylungen, minyaturn (Harvest from my field, essays, stories, miniatures) (New York, 1949); Tenenboym, in Di shtime (Mexico City) (October 24, 1959); D. Eynhorn, in Forverts (February 2, 1948); Yorbukh fun semeteri-department fun arbeter-ring (Annual of the Cemetery Department of the Workmen’s Circle) (New York, 1949); B. Shefner, in Forverts (February 22, 1949); Shefner, Novolipye 7, zikhroynes un eseyen (Nowolipie 7, memoirs and essays) (Buenos Aires, 1955), pp. 159-63; Y. Rapaport, in Fraye arbeter-shtime (February 20, 1948); Rapaport, in Der veker (April 15, 1951); Rapaport, Oysgerisene bleter (Torn up pages) (Melbourne, 1957); Rapaport, Zoymen in vint (Seeds in the wind) (Buenos Aires, 1961), pp. 227-29; M. Mirski, in Yidishe shriftn (Lodz) (December 1948); A. Pen, in Yorbukh (New York) (1948); A. S. Lirik, in Morgn-zhurnal (New York) (February 24, 1949); Y. Y. Sigal, in Keneder odler (February 25, 1949); M. Tsuker, in Dos yidishe vort (Winnipeg) (March 1, 1949); M. Raynharts, in Unzer shtime (March 3, 1949); Khayim Leyb Fuks, in Unzer shtime (March 4, 1949); Fuks, in Der veker (April 15, 1954); Fuks, in Fun noentn over (New York) 3 (1957), see index; Y. Rotnberg, in Foroys (March 15, 1949); Sh. Y. Dorfzon, in Afrikaner idishe tsaytung (Johannesburg) (March 18, 1949); F. Bizberg, in Der shpigl (March 1949); M. Knapheys, in Arbeter-vort (Paris) 9 (1949); Knapheys, in Unzer vort (Paris) (May 10, 1954); F. Ziglboym and B. Levinski, in Dorem-afrike (Johannesburg) (March 1949); H. Himlfarb, in Unzer shtime (March 29, 1949; March 30, 1949); Dr. Y. Kisman, in Der veker (April 15, 1949); Y. Kharlash, in Kultur un dertsiung (New York) (April 1949); B. Berliner, in Der veg (May 21, 1949); A. Kalir, in Letste nayes (Tel Aviv) (March 6, 1954; April 2, 1954); Kalir, in Davar (Sivan 10 [= June 11], 1954); Y. Papyernikov, in Der morgn (Munich) (November 11, 1949); Papyernikov, Heymishe un noente (Familiar and close) (Tel Aviv, 1958), pp. 146-48; Avrom Reyzen, in Di feder (New York) (1949); Sefer hashana shel haitonim (Newspaper yearbook) (Tel Aviv, 1948/1949); Kh. Lif, Hasifrut haidit betargum ivri (Yiddish literature in Hebrew translation) (Tel Aviv, 1949); G. Aronson, in Di tsukunft (January 1951); L. Bayon, in Foroys (May 23, 1951); M. Elkin, in Yorbukh (1951); F. Lerner, in Di naye tsayt (Buenos Aires) (March 20, 1952); M. Mandelman, in Lite (Lithuania), vol. 1 (New York, 1951), p. 1352; A. V. Yasni, in Letste nayes (April 2, 1954); M. Domb, in Loshn un lebn (Lonson) (February 1954); M. Turkov, Di letste fun a groysn dor (The last of a great generation) (Buenos Aires, 1954); letter from Z. Segalovitsh, in Ilustrirte literarishe bleter (Buenos Aires) (January-February 1957; March-April 1957); B. Kutsher, Geven amol varshe (As Warsaw once was) (Paris, 1955), see index; Dr. A. Mukdoni, In varshe un in lodzh (In Warsaw and in Lodz), vol. 1 (Buenos Aires, 1955), see index; A. Kaganovski, Yidishe shrayber in der heym (Yiddish writers at home) (Paris, 1956); Y. Rodak, Kunst un kinstler (Art and artists) (New York, 1955), p. 158; Sh. L. Shnayderman, in Di tsukunft (April 1959); Y. Perlman, in Letste nayes (February 1959); A. Grinberg, in Di tsukunft (April 1960); G. Pomerants, in Der idisher zhurnal (Toronto) (August 29, 1960); Y. Kh. Biletski, Masot bishvile sifrut yidish (Essays on Yiddish literature) (Tel Aviv: Gazit, 1960), pp. 316-17; Chone Shmeruk, comp., Pirsumim yehudiim babrit-hamoatsot, 1917-1961 (Jewish publications in the Soviet Union, 1917-1961) (Jerusalem, 1961), see index; Y. Gar and F. Fridman, Biblyografye fun yidishe bikher vegn khurbn un gvure (Bibliography of Yiddish books concerning the Holocaust and heroism) (New York, 1962), see index; Moshe Basok, Mivḥar shirat yidish (Selections of Yiddish poetry) (Tel Aviv, 1963), pp. 75-78; H. Leyvik, Eseyen un redes (Essays and speeches) (New York, 1963), pp. 254-57; H. K. (H. Kempinski), in Buletin fun bund-arkhiv (New York) (January 1964); B. Shlevin, in Unzer shtime (March 28, 1964; March 30, 1964); Y. Mark, in Jewish Book Annual, 5707-5708 (New York); H. J. Alderman, in Jewish Book Annual 5711.